Types of Dysarthria

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Flashcards by lauren.huntercal, updated more than 1 year ago
lauren.huntercal
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Flashcards on Types of Dysarthria, created by lauren.huntercal on 09/07/2014.

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Flaccid Dysarthria - What causes it? Caused by injury or disease of one or more of the cranial or spinal nerves. - Problems in the nuclei, axons, or NMJ that make up the motor units of the final common pathway. (Duffy, J.R., 2013)
Flaccid Dysarthria - What does it look like? Deviant speech characteristics can be traced to muscle weakness, and reduced muscle tone, and their effects on: - Speed, range, and accuracy of speech movements
Flaccid Dysarthria - What is affected? - Sometimes reflects involvement of one muscle group (Eg. Tongue), or subsystem (Eg. phonatory, articulatory). - Can also reflect involvement of several muscle groups or subsystems - Lesion between brainstem and spinal cord, and the muscles of speech. -Difficulty with motor execution of tasks
Flaccid Dysarthrias - Clinical Characteristics - Reflexive, automatic, and voluntary movements are all affected. - Why LMN is distinguishable from lesions to other parts of motor system - Weakness, hypotonia (reduced muscle tone), diminished reflexes characterise flaccid paralysis.
Flaccid Dysarthrias -Weakness - Damage to any portion of the motor unity including cranial, and spinal nerve cell bodies in the brainstem or spinal cord. - Can also result from muscle disease - When damaged, motor units are inactivated and the muscles' ability to contract is lost or reduced. When motor unit inactivates LMN input to a muscle, paralysis occurs. Weakness can be observed: - During single contractions - During repetitive contractions - During sustained contractions
Flaccid Dysarthrias -Hyptonia and Reduced Reflexes Hypotonia:Floppiness of muscle and reduced resistance to passive movement. And reduced or absent normal reflexes.
Flaccid Dysarthrias - Atrophy Muscle structure can be altered by FCP and muscle disease. - Cranial or spinal nerve bodies, peripheral nerves or muscle fibres eventually lose bulk (associated with significant weakness).
Flaccid Dysarthrias - Fasciculations and Fibrillations Fasciculations are visible, arrhythmic, isolated twitches in resting muscle Fibrillations are invisible, spontaneous independent contractions of individual muscle fibers that reflect slow repetitive action potentials.
Flaccid Dysarthrias - Progressive Weakness in use When disease effects NMJ, rapid weakening of muscle with use and recovery in rest can occur. Fatigue is common in people with any type of weakness.
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