GCSE History – The early years and the Weimar Republic 1918-1923

Ben C
Flashcards by , created about 4 years ago

Edexcel GCSE History flashcards for Topic 2C Life in Germany - The early years and the Weimar Republic 1918-1923.

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Ben C
Created by Ben C about 4 years ago
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Question Answer
What were the events leading up to the abdication of Kaiser Wilhelm II? -German port of Kiel the sailors mutinied. -End of October 1918, refused to fight the British navy. -Marched to Berlin to demand abdication of Kaiser Wilhelm II. -Kaiser abdicated.
What was the date of the Kaiser's abdication? 9th November 1918.
Who was Friedrich Ebert? After the abdication of the Kaiser, he stepped in as the acting chancellor of Germany and chairman of SPD.
What were the events AFTER the abdication of the Kaiser? -Friedrich Ebert set up Council of People's Representatives. -In the temporary government, Ebert was elected President. -11th November - Armistice with Allies.
What was the name of the treaty signed with the Allies? The Treaty of Versailles.
What were the 5 terms of the Treaty of Versailles? Rich Woman Make Terrible Windows: R - Reparations. W - War guilt. M - Military restrictions. T - Territorial changes. W - Weapon limitations.
What was the 'Stab in the back' theory? -The common belief that the army was on the verge of winning the war, but were betrayed. -The betrayers (politicians) were called the 'November Criminals'. -All of this meant the Republic was DOOMED from the start.
What 4 problems did the Treaty of Versailles caused for the Weimar Republic? -Crisis of the Ruhr. -Growth of Nationalism. -Weakened Reichstag. -The Kapp Putsch.
Give 2 strengths of the Weimar Republic. -Most democratic country in the world (everybody over 20 had the vote). -State governments were continued = state traditions maintained.
Give 3 'in the middle' opinions about the Weimar Republic. -PR meant all parties had FAIR share of Reichstag seats. --This often led to short-lived, coalition governments. -Article 48: President could protect Germany in a time of emergency. --This could be ABUSED: didn't define an emergency.
Give 4 weakness of the Weimar Republic. -Free speech gave opposition groups freedom to attack new government. -NO changes to army or judiciary. -Voting system = issue carrying out unpopular policies. -President had power to appoint or dismiss Chancellor.
When was the Spartacist Uprising? 5th January 1919.
What was the 'Spartacist League' and who were its leaders? -The German Communist Party inspired by the Russian Revolution. -Led by Rosa Luxembourg and Karl Libknecht.
What were the events during the Spartacist Uprising (5th January)? -Spartacists took over government's newspaper and telegraph bureau. -Tried to organize a general strike in Berlin. -Badly organized. -Received LITTLE support from the people of Berlin.
What were the events during the Spartacist Uprising (6th January)? -Ebert created volunteer force of 4,000 ex-soldiers, with help of army leaders. -Group called FREIKORPS. -They consisted of HARD men who liked to fight and HATED communism.
What were the events during the Spartacist Uprising (15th January)? -Spartacists were CRUSHED. -Luxemburg and Liebknecht were arrested. -Both were shot and kill for 'resisting arrest' during transportation. -SHOCKED Ebert!
What did the Spartacist Uprising show us (2 things)? -Highlighted the instability of the WR. -A socialist, left wing government were attacked by an even more left wing group.
After the Spartacist uprising, what were the new republic reliant on and how did they obey this? -Dependent on support of the army. -For the support, Republic promised to not change leadership of army.
When was the Kapp Putsch? March 1920.
Who were the Freikorps? -Ex-soldiers, mainly right-wing nationalists. -Used by Weimar gov. to squash Spartacist revolt. -Disbanded in 1920. -This was due to decrease in German army AND trying to take power in the Kapp Putsch.
Who led the Freikorps? Dr. Wolfgang Kapp.
What were the events of the Kapp Putsch? -March 1920 - Freikorps occupied Berlin. -Weimar government asked army to suppress Putsch. -WR also asked trade unions to organise a strike. -Army REFUSED, trade unions ACCEPTED. -General Strike caused CHAOS and Kapp couldn't rule Germany and was forced to flee.
What was the positive outcome of the Kapp Putsch, 1920? It showed that the Republic had gained much support from the workers of Berlin.
What was the negative outcome of the Kapp Putsch, 1920? Revealed LACK of support from the army who sympathized with aims of the Putsch.
Were the Nazi party left or right wing? Extremely right wing.
What were the Nazi Party's policies from 1920-1922 (4 policies)? -Nationalism. -Socialism. -Anti-communism. -Antisemitism.
What were the three major challenges of 1923? -Munich Putsch. -Hyperinflation. -Invasion of the Ruhr.
What was hyperinflation? The extreme increase in prices in a short time.
What were the five events leading up to hyperinflation (timeline)? -1914-18: Gov. printed more money to pay for WW1, but didn't have more gold. -1918-22: Weimar government printed more money for post-war shortages and asked for longer pay for first reparations installment. -January 1923 - French troops invaded Ruhr, taking raw good and materials. German workers went on strike. -This caused Weimar government to print off MORE money to pay strikers and make up for loss of materials. -November 1923 - German mark was worthless.
Which three groups of people was hyperinflation 'good' for? -Farmers, paid more for food. -People and businesses in debt. -Fixed rents for rooms or shops became VERY cheap.
What were the bad effects of hyperinflation? -The normal people who couldn't afford essentials. -Wages rose, not as quickly as prices. -Businesses went bankrupt. -People with fixed or monthly incomes suffered most. -Savings became worthless. -Blamed Weimar government, making it even more unpopular.
When was the Munich Putsch? October 1923 to 9th November 1923.
What happened in October 1923 of the Munich Putsch? -During crisis of 1923, Hitler plotted with two nationalist politicians: Kahr and Lassow, to take over Munich in a revolution. -October 4th 1923: Kahr and Lassow called off revolution, despite Hitler having troops ready.
What happened on 8th November 1923 in the Munich Putsch? -Hitler and 600 SA burst into a Munich beer hall, where Gustav von Kahr, head of the Bavarian government was holding a meeting. -Hitler announced the revolution had begun. -Threatened everybody to rebel with him.
What did the SA take on 8th November 1923? Army headquarters and offices of local newspaper.
What happened on 9th November 1923 in the Munich Putsch? -Hitler, Ludendorff and about 3000 other supporters marched through Munich, looking for more support. -Kahr had called in police and army reinforcements. -A gun battle resulted in 16 Nazi supports being killed. -FAILED: Hitler and Ludendorff arrested.
What were the 5 main reason as to why the Nazi Party wanted to take Munich? MUBALUREUN: MU - Mussolini BA - Bavarian government (Nazis thought they had support from them). LU - Ludendorff (Nazis thought he could persuade the army to support them). RE - Reparations being payed to France. UN - United support (Hitler was establishe leader, 50,000 supporters and the SA).
What were the consequences of the Munich Putsch? -Nazi Party banned. -Leaders imprisoned. -Hitler's trial = public sympathy. -Nazis rethought tactics. -Now knew that an armed uprising wouldn't work.
Why was the Munich Putsch a failure? -Nazis were not organized. -Police were better prepared. -Too few people in Munich supported the Nazis. -Bavarian government didn't join the Nazis. -Neither the army nor police supported the Nazis. -Putsch appeared a total failure - Hitler in prison, Nazi Party banned.
Why was the Munich Putsch a success? -Failure caused Hitler and other party leaders to re-think tactics. -Gain of popularity, Mein Kampf became a bestseller. -Sympathetic to Nazi ideas. Nazi Party banned for a short period of time and Hitler's sentence shortened.
What is the name of the person who led the 'Golden Years'? Gustav Stresemann.
What were the five things that Gustav Stresemann did in order to recover the Weimar Republic? -Introduction of the Rentenmark. -Dawes plan. -Young plan. -Germany's entry into the League of Nations. -Locarno Treaties. -End of Passive Resistance.
What were the changes in currency AFTER hyperinflation? -November 1923: Rentenmark is introduced to the public and currency stabilized. -1924: Rentenmark converted to Reichsmark (backed with gold) and this gradually restored the value of German money.
What was the Dawes Plan? -Plan introduced in 1924. -Reorganized reparations to USA. -Brough foreign investment to Germany.
What was the Young plan? -Plan introduced in 1929. -Set timescale and reduced reparations. -France agreed to leave Rhineland early.
What was the significance of Germany entering into the League of Nations (1926)? Germany recognized as a greater power again.
What were the Locarno Treaties? -Treaties introduced in 1925. -Improved relations with UK and France. -Guaranteed borders with Belgium, France and Italy.
What happened and when was the end of passive resistance? -Passive Resistance ended in Nov. 1923. -Agreed to pay reparations. -French withdrew from Ruhr in 1925. -Allowed later negotiations over reparations.
Which groups supported the Nazi Party in 1920's? -Young people. -Skilled workers. -Farmers. -Middle and upper classes who feared communism.
Name 5 ways in which the Nazi Party changed their tactics. -Rallies. -Meetings. -Propoganda. -Posters and newspapers. -Mein Kampf.
Explain rallies in terms of the Nazi Party changing tactics. -First rally held in 1926. -Regular huge rallies with military-style marches and speeches by Hitler. -VERY popular with youth.
Explain meetings in terms of the Nazi Party changing tactics. -Nazis ran evening classes to train members in public speaking. -Helped them to spread Nazi ideology.
Explain propaganda in terms of the Nazi Party changing tactics. -Goebbels managed propaganda. -Targetted specific groups with specific messages. -Anti-Jewish propaganda worked best with working class people.
Explain posters and newspapers in terms of the Nazi Party changing tactics. -Posters skillfully got their messages across. -Newspapers explained ideas in more depth.
Explain Mein Kampf in terms of the Nazi Party changing tactics. -Published in 1925. -Promoted the following aims: --Removing Jews from Germany. --Destroying Communism. --Expanding Germany. -The book became a BESTSELLER.
What were the 4 ways in which Nazi Party Organisation changed? -From local to national. -Targetting rural areas. -Organisations. -SA.
Explain moving from local to national in terms of changing Nazi Party Organisation. -Nazi headquarters stayed in Munich. -Brances were set up all over Germany. -Each Gau was led by a Gauletier.
Explain targeting rural areas in terms of changing Nazi Party Organisation. Nazis focused on winning support fom farmeres, who were finding times tough (especially after 1928).
Explain organisations in terms of changing Nazi Party Organisation. -Various different organisations were set up for different groups. Examples include: -Hitler Youth. -Nazi Students' League. -Teachers' League. -Woman's League.
Explain SA in terms of changing Nazi Party Organisation. -Image of SA CHANGED. -Now one of order and discipline. -More young men wanted to join.
Name 3 reasons for the increase after 1929 for Nazi support. -The appeal of Hitler. -The role of propaganda. -The role of the SA.
Why was the appeal of Hitler so strong? -He was chismatic. -He appealed strongly to women and they wanted his babies.
What was the role of propaganda as a reason for increase after 1929? Goebbels was a MASTER of propaganda. He used these methods: -Posters. -Radio. -Rallies. -Newspapers. -Parades and marches.
What was the role of the SA as a reason for increase after 1929? -By 1932, image of SA improved dramatically. -Over 600,000 members. -Attracted young, unemployed people who admired the parades through towns and cities. -Continued to disrupt Communist Party meetings.
What and when was the Wall Street Crash? -Happened in 1929. -US companies lost billions of dollars in value overnight, leaving banks and businesses ruined. -Crash triggered a worldwide recession. -Germany suffered GREATLY.
What was the economic impact of the Wall Street Crash (just stages, not detail)? US Loans → German business + German government → German people.
What was the first stage of the economic impact of the Wall Street Crash? US stopped lending money to Germany and DEMANDED all loans to be repaid.
What happened in consequence to the US demanding all its loans to be repaid? German businesses -Had to pay back lones. -No more investment from US. -Had to pay increases in taxes. -Worldwide, no money to buy goods, so markets dried up.
What happened in consequence to the US demanding all its loans to be repaid? German government -Couldn't borrow money from US. -Refused to print more money. -Increased taxes. -Made cuts in unemployment benefit. -Gov. workers had wages cut and some lost their jobs.
What was the effect on the German people due to the Wall Street Crash? -Businesses reduced staff or closed. -Millions of workers and farm labourers lost their jobs. -Young people were badly affected by job losses. -With no work, and benefits slashed, families suffered terrible poverty.
What were the six main political impacts of the Wall Street Crash? -Weimar government was blamed for German dependence on US loans. -Highlighted lack of strong leadership. -Two main parties in coalition government (Centre Party and SDP) couldn't agree how to solve the crisis. -Hindenburg used Article 48 to pass laws without Reichstag agreement. Germany became a dictatorship. -New economic policies were unpopular. -Extremist parties became more popular.