Geography - AQA - GCSE - Physical - Rivers

Josh Anderson
Flashcards by , created about 5 years ago

All the flashcards needed to prepare for an early physical geography rivers test.

Josh Anderson
Created by Josh Anderson about 5 years ago
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Question Answer
Weathering: Chemical Weathering Weathering caused by chemical reactions (mainly with water and substances dissolved in it). When rocks are broken down or chemically altered.
Weathering: Physical Weathering Caused by the effects of the changing temperature on rocks, sometimes assisted by water Freeze Thaw Exfoliation
Physical Weathering: Freeze Thaw Water seeps into cracks in rocks, freezes and expands, eventually breaking rock apart.
Physical Weathering: Exfoliation/Onion Skin Rock heats up and expands by day, and cools down and contracts by night, causing stress on the outer layers. This stress then causes them to peel off.
Biological Weathering Any weathering involving living things. Tree roots going into cracks in rocks, as the tree grows, rock splits. Animals bore into rocks for protection. Bacteria, algae or lichen produce chemicals that break down rock.
Erosion in rivers Different types include: Hydraulic action Abrasion / Corrasion Corrosion Attrition
Erosion in rivers: Hydraulic Action The force of the water pushing against the banks is enough to gradually wear it away.
Erosion in rivers: Abrasion/Corrasion Rocks carried by the river rub against the bed and the banks and wear it away.
Erosion in rivers: Corrosion Rocks that have been broken up already are broken up into tiny pieces and dissolved into the water.
Erosion in rivers: Attrition Rocks being carried by the river collide with each other, smashing into smaller, smoother and rounder pieces.
Transportation in rivers Different types include: Saltation Traction Solution Suspension
Transportation in rivers: Saltation Small stones are bounced along the river bed.
Transportation in rivers: Suspension Very small, fine stones are carried down the river, suspended.
Transportation in rivers: Solution Minerals are dissolved into the water and carried along as a solution.
Transportation in rivers: Traction Larger rocks are rolled downstream along the bed.
Deposition When a river loses energy, it will drop some of the material it is carrying. When the volume of water decreases, or when it enters a shallow area, deposition is common.
Mass Movement Different types include: Slumping Soil Creep
Mass Movement: Slumping Rapid movement of large amounts of ground, which occur after periods of heavy rain.
Mass Movement: Soil Creep Slow movement of soil, occurring on gentle slopes. It causes ripples in the earth.