NEUR3018 - L9.

Zsofi Dombi
Flashcards by Zsofi Dombi, updated more than 1 year ago
Zsofi Dombi
Created by Zsofi Dombi over 2 years ago


NEUR3018 Flashcards on NEUR3018 - L9., created by Zsofi Dombi on 04/12/2018.

Resource summary

Question Answer
Hippocampus location located under the cerebral cortex, in the medial temproal lobe
Memory definition faculty of the mind by which information is encoded, stored and retrieved
Why is memory important? (Eysenck, 2012) vital to experiences, without remembering past events we could not learn / develop language, relationships, personal identitiy
Amnesia definition the profound loss of memories, in the presence of relatively preserved cognitive abilities
Types of amnesia 1. psychogenic: results from psychological factors 2. organic: results from damage to the brain through physical injury
Anterograde amnesia definition the inability to form new memories
Retrograde amnesia The lost of pre-exisitng memories to conscious recollection beyond an ordinary degree of forgetfulness
Hippocampal amnesia damage to the medial temproal lobe
Patient HM - had bilateral medial temproal lobectomy to treat his epilepsy - reduction in epilepsy but heavy anterograde amnesia and temporally graded retrograde amnesia
What is preserved in hippocampal patients? - short term memory: tested by digit span - procedural memory: tested by mirror drawing - general cognitive memory: tested by the Wisconsin Crad Sorting Test
The taxonomy of Memory - long term memory: explicit and implicit memory - explicit memory: semantic and episodic memory - implicit memory: priming, classical conditioning, procedural skills, non-associative learning
Explicit memory in the brain medial temporal lobe
Implicit memory in the brain - non-associative learning: reflexes - classical conditioning: emotional - amygdala, skeletal - cerebellum - priming: neocortex - procedural skills - striatum
the standard consolidation theory - by Squire and Alvarez (1995) -the hippocampus is believed to rapidly integrate and bind together information transmitted from distributed cortical networks that support the various features of a whole experience in order to form a coherent memory trace -as memories mature, the role of the hippocampus would gradually diminish, leaving extrahippocampal regions, presumably cortical areas, to become independently capable of sustaining memories and mediate retrieval
problem with the standard consolidation theory - individuals growing up with hippocampal damage have normal semantic knowledge, only impairment in episodic memory - patient FRF had reserved semantic memory, but severe retrograde autobiographical amnesia
revised taxonomy semantic memory: independent of hippocampus
Squire & Bayley (2007) graded retrograde amnesia is regularly reported in hippocamapl patients
Cipolotti et al (2001) patient V.C. had amensia for very remote memories
Steinvorth et al (2005) assessed remote autobiographical memories in HM and WR - semantic memories without hippocampus are not rich in detail
The Multiple Trace Theory - proposed by Nadel and Moscovitch (1997) - every remembering: a new trace - older memories: become semanticised - the hippocampus retains a permanent role in memory storage and retrieval as long as memories exist
Gilboa et al (2004) - fMRI study using family photographs - hippocampal activation is related to the vividness rather than the age of memory - support the multiple trace theory
O'Keefe & Nadel (1978) proposed that hippocampus stores cognitive maps
Martin et al (2005) - hippocampus play a long-lasting role in spatial memory - examined retrograde memory in rats (partial / complete)
Maguire et al (2006) - patient TT: taxi driver in London - remembered and navugated good in major roads - impaired navigation when minor roads used
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