Exam 1 - Abnormal Psychology

Courtney Judd
Flashcards by Courtney Judd, updated more than 1 year ago
Courtney Judd
Created by Courtney Judd over 6 years ago


Abnormal Psychology - Chapters 1, 2, 3, 4, and 16

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Question Answer
What are the 5 critical pieces of information related to the presenting problem? Duration, Intensity, Frequency, Onset, and Course
What is clinical assessment used for? to determine how and why a person is behaving abnormally and how that person may be helped. may also be used to evaluate treatment progress/effectiveness
What is an unstructured clinical interview? Questions asked in an unplanned, open-ended manner
What is a clinical interview used for? to collect detailed information, especially personal history, about a client.
What is the benefit of unstructured clinical interviews? It allows the interviewer to focus on whatever topics that they consider most important.
What's a structured clinical interview? Clinicians ask prepared questions, often from a published interview schedule It may also include a mental status exam.
What do projective tests require? That subjects interpret vague and ambiguous stimuli or follow open-ended instruction.
Who mainly uses projective tests? psychodynamic practitioners
What can you learn from projective tests? individual's motives, coping mechanisms, personality, conflicts, etc.
What are the most popular forms of projective testing? Rorschach Inkblots and Thematic Apperception Test
What is the Thematic Apperception Test? It uses a series of simple ambiguous pictures about which a subject is instructed to make up stories.
What are limitations of the Thematic Apperception Test? -Administration is lengthy, complicated, and requires extensive training. -Results are subjective -There's a risk of "overpathologizing" individuals. -There's also a diminished use of this test.
What are Personality Inventories? They are designed to measure broad personality characteristics, typically based on objective responses that focus on behaviors, beliefs, and feelings.
What is the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI)? It is a test containing 550 true/false self-statements regarding many things including mood, morale, religion, psychological symptoms and physical concerns. Interpretations are based on how the response compares to how others with specific disorders answered the questions.
What are Intelligence Tests? They are designed to measure intellectual ability. They are comprised of a series of tests assessing both verbal and non-verbal skills. It generates an intelligence quotient (IQ)
What is the most popular Intelligence Test? Wechsler Tests -Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) -Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children(WISC)
What is the purpose of intelligence tests? to predict school performance to determine whether a person has an intellectual disability to identify gifted children used in conjunction with achievement tests to diagnose learning disabilities.
What do self reports focus on? One specific area of functioning, such as social skills or cognitive inventories.
Where can naturalistic observations occur? In every day environments like homes, schools, institutions, and community settings. They tend to focus on interactions.
What are three kinds of neuropsychological assessment? Neurocognitive screening, syndrome analysis, and standardized tests.
What are three kinds of neurocognitive screening? MOCA, MMSE, and DRS-2
How does the DSM classify disorders? Through prototypical functioning and compares what is "normal" or "abnormal" based on this prototype.
What are the criteria for Persistent Depressive Disorder? -Depressed mood for most of the day, for more days than not, for at least 2 years. 2 or more of the following: -Poor appetite -Insomnia or hypersomnia -Low energy or fatigue -Low self-esteem -Poor concentration or difficulty making decisions -Feelings of hopelessness
What is the reason for classification or categorization? It provides a common naming system that makes communication between professionals more possible. It also allows us to study and learn more about causes of disorders as well as treatment.
What is a social/political implication of classification/categorization? When it comes to insurance agencies determining which types of psychological difficulties warrant reimbursement.
What are disadvantages to classification? -Not everyone fits in to a category. -Bias among clinicians in trying to fit a client into a treatable (billable) condition. -Problem of comorbidity -Dealing with people who are not "abnormal" enough.
What is Dimensional Approach? considers each person's behavior as the product of differing strength or intensities of behavior along dimensions such as mood, coping capacity, impairment, emotional stability, and interpersonal trust.
What is a benefit to the Dimensional Approach? It allows for consideration of unique profiles of each person based on complex social, biological, and psychological histories/ingredients into their current functioning.
What are 5 kinds of behavior therapy? exposure therapy, aversion therapy, modeling, systematic reinforcement, and token economies
1. Is a study with controlled boundaries generalizable to practical settings? What is this known as? Please provide two examples (not discussed in the lecture) of studies that could have poor generalizability? No. External Validity. Anything with a small demographic
2. If you were seeing a client with a rare disorder or symptom presentation and wanted to find research to develop an empirically supported treatment approached, what type of study would likely be most helpful? Why? Case study, because it’s rare and it is an individual case.
3. If we only use one type of research or theory to study and think about mental disorders, are we in jeopardy of missing information? What is this known as? If you were a clinician, how could you avoid making this mistake? Confirmation bias, yes, do more research and look at multiple kinds of studies and texts, etc.
What is the best source of information in the research process? Direct observation, case study, structured/semi-structured clinical interviews, etc (all have pros and cons) just be able to explain why you choose it.
What are qualities that can enhance treatment? A client's motivation to change Expectancy that therapy will help Insight
What is exposure therapy? it is accomplished through guided exposure to anxiety provoking stimuli. -assuming that anxiety is learned, exposure therapy focuses on new learning/re-wiring fear biology.
What is systematic desensitization? Slow, controlled, gradual exposure to an anxiety provoking stimuli
What is flooding? Confrontation at full strength to an anxiety provoking stimuli
What is a therapeutic alliance? The relationship between the therapist and the client. There should be a sense of working collaboratively, agreement about goals of therapy, and an affective bond for therapeutic gain.
What is aversion therapy? an involved modification of undesirable behavior through punishment. ex. antabuse induces nausea and vomiting after drinking alcohol.
What are two aspects of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy? -Cognitive processes influence emotion, motivation and behavior. -Techniques that are chosen to use with any given client must be done in a hypothesis-testing, practical manner.
What is a token economy? When a patient (typically a child) behaves appropriately, they can earn "tokens" which they could use on rewards and privileges.
What is psychoeducation? Clients are educated on how cognitions related to emotions. They learn to identify, and much later, learn to challenge errors in thinking. ex. person with social anxiety thinking everyone notices the stain on their shirt.
What is Beck's Cognitive Therapy used to treat? It was developed to treat depression and later anxiety. It's now used with a range of disorders like eating disorders, obesity, personality disorders, substance abuse disorders, etc.
What is the difference between cognitive and cognitive behavioral? Terms are used interchangeably when referring to therapy modality. -cognitive: emphasizes effect of thoughts on behavior and emotional experience. -behavior: emphasizes the influence of behavior on functioning.
What is necessary for a client to feel during Cognitive Behavioral Therapy, and why? You need the client to buy-in that the way of thinking is dysfunctional/problematic because eventually the client is encouraged to identify faulty schemas and potential for relapse is high if underlying cognitive vulnerability factors aren't changed.
What can errors in thinking lead to? -Selectively viewing the world as harmful when evidence to contrary exists. -Overgeneralization on the basis of limited examples. -Magnify the significance of undesirable events. -Engage in absolutistic thinking
What is emotional reasoning? You assume that your negative emotions necessarily reflect the way things really are. "I feel it, therefore it must be true"
What is personalization? You see yourself as the cause of some negative event in which in fact you are primarily responsible for.
What is a mental filter? You pick out a single negative detail and dwell on it exclusively so that your vision of all reality becomes darkened.
What is overgeneralization? You see a single negative event as a never-ending pattern of defeat.
What is resistance analysis? Exploring an unwillingness to talk about certain motives, thoughts, or experiences.
What is transference? Often people carry over, and unconsciously apply to their therapist, attitudes and feelings that they had in their relations with a parent or other person close to them in the past.
What is free association? It's when you explore content of preconsciousness.
What is the purpose of free association? To gain insight into connection between conscious and maladaptive behaviors.
What is dream analysis? It involves interpreting latent content which consists of the actual motives that are seeking expression but are so painful or unacceptable that they are disguised.
What is interpersonal therapy? It uses therapeutic relationship as the mechanism for change.
What is the purpose of interpersonal therapy? to create an emotionally corrective experience.
What is countertransference An unconscious redirection of feelings from the therapist to the client.
What is integrative behavioral couple therapy? It includes strategies that help each member of the couple come to terms with and accept some of the limitations of the other partner. focuses on acceptance.
What is structural family therapy? It holds that if the family context can be changed, then the individual members will have altered experiences in the family and will behave differently.
How is "Abnormal" defined? -There's no universal agreement.
What are the 7 elements of abnormality? -Suffering -Maladaptiveness -Statistical deviance -Violation of societal standards -Social discomfort -Irrationality and unpredictability -Dangerousness
What is maladaptiveness? Interference or impairment in some area of life.
What is the role of culture in abnormality? -it's culturally defined -culturally influenced -contextual ex. homosexuality in USA
What is an example of a macro-scale question? Do boys experience higher prevalence of conduct disorder than girls?
What is an example of a micro-scale question Is there a higher prevalence of conduct disorder among boys age 12-15 who are raised in single mother households than boys that live with both biological parents?
What is confirmation bias? When you only use one type of research or theory to study and think about mental disorders which leaves the possibility of missing information.
How is information collected in a self report? Questionnaires and interviews.
How can self reports be misleading? -People not in tune with subjective experience -social desirability -subjective value differentials: One person's "Totally agree" os another's "Agree"
What are the pros/cons of structured clinical interviews? Pro: provide higher reliability in diagnostic process Cons: -time intensive -requires in person interviewing -requires high level of training for those who administer the SCID to be proficient and considered valid.
What is an advantage and disadvantage to correlational research? Advantage -Allows us to study things in more natural, less manipulated contexts. Disadvantage -cannot determine causality and/or directionality.
What is correlational research? It's where a group is selected, then compared on a variety of measures. This helps to identify factors that may be associated with the group.
What is meta-analysis? A statistical technique which combines previous studies' results that examined the same variables/relationships of interest in order to identify a general estimate of the relationship and strength of relationship.
What is effect size? strength of relationship between two variables in the population.
What is Cohen's d scale of effect size? small= 0.20 medium= 0.50 large= 0.80
What is external generalizability? Is a study with such controlled boundaries generalizable to practical settings?
What is internal validity? Extent to which the study is methodologically sound and free of confounds Want to minimize likelihood of alternative explanations
What is external validity? Extent to which we can generalize our findings to other samples, contexts, or times.
What is demonology and what was the treatment? Abnormal behavior that was result of demons or God taking possession of another. Treatment if evil= exorcism if good= -considered to have powers -individual considered with awe
What is trephination? It was an ancient egyptian method where they drilled holes in the skull allowing for the release of evil spirits
How did Hippocrates help guide early medical concepts? -Found that mental disorders have natural etiologies. -Physical and environmental factors key to functioning (brain central and heritability)
What were Hippocrates' 3 general categories of mental illness? Mania, Melancholia, and Phrenitis
What were Galen's contributions to early medical concepts? -clinical descriptions of mental disorders -focused on anatomy of nervous system -4 dynamic fluids (plegm, black bile, blood, and bile) -discounted walking uterus theory posed by Hippocrates
What was the significance of Avicenna? "Prince and Chief of Physicians" -prompted principles of humane treatment -wrote canon of medicine which is considered more influential textbook of all time. -theorized diseases as result of emotional distress
How was Medicine during the Middle Ages? -sin is a cause of illness -mass hysteria feared(tarantism, lycanthropy)
What is emotional contagion scientific explanation for mimicry of behaviors observed.
Examples of mass hysteria phenomena today? Riots, vaccines=autism, etc.
What's the "humane" and "inhumane" reason for the emergence of asylums? humane= good christian thing to do, sense of charity. inhumane= to remove these individuals from society.
What is the significance of Philippe Pinel? He wrote "Memoir on Madness" which believed that mental illness is treatable. He removed the shackles, provided sunlit rooms, allowed exercise, etc. Results were great.
How was mental hospital care in the 20th century? -Mental hospitals grew in number -Hospital stays were quite lengthy -Mary Jane Ward published The Snake Pit -NIMH forms and provides funding for training and research among psychiatrists. -Humanitarian reform
What is deinstitutionalization? -It began in 1963 -Psychiatric hospitals closed, forced relocation to live with: their families, group homes, prisons, or the streets. -Considered cost effective and more humane.
What was deinstitutionalization replaced with? -Community based care -Outreach programs -Outpatient treatment
What are examples of 20th century treatments? -Lobotomies -Electroconvulsive Shock Therapy -Straitjackets -Psychotropic medications
What are necessary causes? cause (x) that must exist for disorder (y) to manifest
What are sufficient causes? condition (x) that guarantees the occurrence of disorder (y)
What are contributory causes? cause (x) that increases probability of disorder (y)
What are Distal causal factors? factors that contribute to a predisposition to develop a disorder later in life ex. sexual abuse in childhood contributing to onset of bipolar disorder in adulthood.
What are proximal causal factors? Factors that more immediately contribute to expression of a predisposition for disorder development. ex. breaking up with a significant other and the acute onset of depression symptoms
What is diathesis? a predisposition toward developing a disorder
What is stress? A response to demands perceived as taxing or exceeding of personal resources.
What are protective factors? Modifier's of a person's response to environmental stress.
What is resiliency? The ability to adapt.
What are the three broad factors that can help us understand the causes of abnormal behavior? -Biological viewpoint / causal factors -Psychological -Sociocultural
What 4 things are relevant to maladaptive behavior? -Neurotransmitter and hormone imbalances -Genetic vulnerabilities -Temperament -brain dysfunction/neural plasticity
The neurotransmitter norepinephrine is responsible for: Stress reactions to dangerous situations; attention; orientation
The neurotransmitter dopamine is responsible for: pleasure and cognitive processing; schizophrenia; addictive disorders
The neurotransmitter serotonin is responsible for: Thinking and processing information; anxiety; depression
The neurotransmitter glutamate is responsible for: schizophrenia
The neurotransmitter GABA is responsible for: Reduction of anxiety and high levels of arousal.
What are three methods of studying genetic vulnerabilities? -Family history -Twin method -Adoption studies
At 2-3 months, what 5 dimensions of temperament can be identified? -fearfulness -irritability and frustration -positive affect -activity level -attentional persistence and effortful control
Can existing neural circuits be modified, as well as generate new ones? Yes.
What are the three major schools of thought? -Psychodynamic perspective -Behaviorist perspective -Cognitive behavioral perspective
What is the psychodynamic perspective Emphasized role of unconscious motives and thoughts in relation to normal and abnormal behavior.
What is the Id? the source of instinctual drives; first structure to develop after birth
What is the ego? Mediates between id and the realities of the world
What is the super ego? Internalized taboos and morals of society
What was Freud's view on anxiety? Ego resorts to irrational protective measures when unconscious anxiety cannot be dealt with rationally (ego-defense mechanisms) Anxiety sometimes repressed and manifested in other overt symptoms (like paralysis or conversion blindness)
What is displacement? Releasing hostility on object less dangerous
What is rationalization? Justifying failures with rational reasons rather than the real reason
What is regression? Regressing to previous stages of development
What is repression? Blocking of distress causing memories from conscious level.
What is projection? Placing unacceptable impulses in yourself onto others
What is sublimation? Acting out unacceptable impulses in a socially acceptable way
What are the five psychosexual stages of development oral, anal, phallic, latency, and genital
What is extinction? If a CS is repeatedly presented without the UCS, the conditioned response gradually extinguishes.
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