Infant nutrition and toddler feeding

Averil Tam
Flashcards by Averil Tam, updated more than 1 year ago More Less
Averil Tam
Created by Averil Tam over 1 year ago
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1. TRUE/FALSE - solids are introduced at around 6 months because: A) There is a need to meet increasing needs for micronutrients, energy and protein. True. Breastmilk or formula is no longer adequate at 6 months of age. Babies who do not begin to eat solid foods at this age are at risk of growth faltering and micronutrient deficiencies.
1. TRUE/FALSE - Solids are introduced at around 6 months because: B) This is the age at which most babies are able to sit up, and have good head and neck control. True. Some babies will develop good head and neck control earlier than 6 months, but many are not ready for feeding before this.
1. TRUE/FALSE - Solids are introduced at around 6 months because: C) At 6 months the gastrointestinal tract is mature enough to manage food antigens and food-borne pathogens. True
2. TRUE/FALSE? A) Babies should remain on smooth puree until they are 12 months of age. False. It is very important to encourage progression with texture from smooth puree, through mashed to minced/chopped. Aiming for family foods chopped into small pieces by 12 months of age.
2. TRUE/FALSE? B) Babies cannot chew foods at 7 or 8 months because they may not have teeth. False. Babies have quite hard gums which are sufficient for chewing soft foods. A rotary chewing pattern (moving foods from side to side and chewing on the molar area), takes time to develop.
2. TRUE/FALSE? C) It’s best to offer only fruit and vegetables for the first few months. False. Fruits and vegetables are important but do not provide sufficient nutrition – iron-rich foods such as red meats, chicken, fish etc should be introduced at 6 months. In addition, the 6-10 month age is an important window of opportunity for exposing babies to a wide range of foods and developing acceptance.
2. TRUE/FALSE? D) Offering a wide variety of foods, increasing in textural complexity is the best way to progress with infant feeding. True
3. TRUE/FALSE - foods that are potentially allergenic should be introduced: A) Within the first 12 months of life. True. Potentially allergenic foods should be introduced before the age of 1, ideally while the mother is still breastfeeding (thought to provide added protection from developing allergies).
3. TRUE/FALSE - foods that are potentially allergenic should be introduced: B) Never. False. Difficult to achieve and not a useful approach! Foods that are potentially allergenic (eg. eggs, nuts, seafood, wheat etc) are often nutritious and enjoyable – food avoidance for no reason should not be encouraged.
3. TRUE/FALSE - foods that are potentially allergenic should be introduced: C) After the child’s 2nd birthday. False. This is too late – evidence suggests that delaying introduction of potential allergens for this long may increase the risk of developing food allergies.
3. TRUE/FALSE - foods that are potentially allergenic should be introduced: D) Before 3 months of age. False. This is too early – the gastrointestinal tract is not mature enough for the introduction of potential allergens, and this may increase the risk of a child developing food allergies.
4. TRUE/FALSE? A) Children should never have snacks – just three meals a day. False. Snacks can provide a valuable source of nutrition – it is best to use nutrient-dense foods from the core food groups eg. fruit, vegetables, yoghurt, cheese, eggs, etc. rather than packaged foods which are often energy-dense and nutrient-poor, such as chips, biscuits etc.
4. TRUE/FALSE? B) It’s ok for children to drink as much milk as they want – there’s no such thing as too much milk. False. Drinking excessive amounts of milk can displace other foods in the diet, resulting in poor intake of micronutrients such as iron. After the age of 1, give no more than 400-500ml cow’s milk/day.
4. TRUE/FALSE? C) If a child eats less on one day, they may make up for it the next day – children are good at regulating their appetite and food intake. True. If parents are concerned about food intake, encourage them to keep a record over one week, rather than worrying about daily fluctuations.
4. TRUE/FALSE? D) Role modelling from parents at meal times is not important. False. Modelling positive mealtime behaviours (eg. sitting at the table, no TV/iPad/phones during the meal etc) and good nutrition is very important and has a lasting impact on children.
5. TRUE/FALSE - if a child refuses to eat parents should: A) Hold their arms down and force-feed with a spoon. False. Never force a child to eat – it will create a negative association with feeding, which will become worse over time.
5. TRUE/FALSE - if a child refuses to eat parents should: B) Yell at the child – anger is an effective tool at the table. False. It is best to remain calm and positive. Anger can provoke anxiety in the child, increasing adrenaline, which decreases appetite. It also reinforces the table and mealtime as a negative experience.
5. TRUE/FALSE - if a child refuses to eat parents should: C) Remain calm and positive, allow the child a reasonable period of time with the food and then remove it. True. Main meals should last ~20-30 minutes maximum. Offer the food, eat with the child, provide gentle encouragement to eat but don’t emphasise the food too much. At the end of a reasonable period of time, as the child if they have finished, and remove the food without comment.
5. TRUE/FALSE - if a child refuses to eat parents should: D) Make a different meal for the child. False. Becoming a short-order cook for a child who is rejecting meals is time consuming and frustrating for the parent, and may not result in better nutritional intake.
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