12 PROJECT PROCUREMENT MANAGEMENT

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PMP PMP - All Chapters Flashcards on 12 PROJECT PROCUREMENT MANAGEMENT, created by miguelabascal on 07/15/2013.

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Question Answer
12.1 Plan Procurement Management The process of documenting project procurement decisions, specifying the approach, and identifying potential sellers.
12.2 Conduct Procurements The process of obtaining seller responses, selecting a seller, and awarding a contract
12.3 Control Procurements The process of managing procurement relationships, monitoring contract performance, and making changes and corrections as appropriate.
12.4 Close Procurements The process of completing each project procurement.
• Fixed-price contracts. This category of contracts involves setting a fixed total price for a defined product, service, or result to be provided. Fixed-price contracts may also incorporate financial incentives for achieving or exceeding selected project objectives, such as schedule delivery dates, cost and technical performance, or anything that can be quantified and subsequently measured.
Firm Fixed Price Contracts (FFP). The most commonly used contract type is the FFP. It is favored by most buying organizations because the price for goods is set at the outset and not subject to change unless the scope of work changes. Any cost increase due to adverse performance is the responsibility of the seller, who is obligated to complete the effort. Under the FFP contract, the buyer should precisely specify the product or services to be procured, and any changes to the procurement specification can increase the costs to the buyer.
Fixed Price Incentive Fee Contracts (FPIF). This fixed-price arrangement gives the buyer and seller some flexibility in that it allows for deviation from performance, with financial incentives tied to achieving agreed upon metrics. Typically such financial incentives are related to cost, schedule, or technical performance of the seller. Performance targets are established at the outset, and the final contract price is determined after completion of all work based on the seller’s performance. Under FPIF contracts, a price ceiling is set, and all costs above the price ceiling are the responsibility of the seller, who is obligated to complete the work.
Fixed Price with Economic Price Adjustment Contracts (FP-EPA). This contract type is used whenever the seller’s performance period spans a considerable period of years, as is desired with many long-term relationships. It is a fixed-price contract, but with a special provision allowing for pre defined final adjustments to the contract price due to changed conditions, such as inflation changes, or cost increases (or decreases) for specific commodities. The EPA clause needs to relate to some reliable financial index, which is used to precisely adjust the final price. The FP-EPA contract is intended to protect both buyer and seller from external conditions beyond their control.
Cost-reimbursable contracts This category of contract involves payments (cost reimbursements) to the seller for all legitimate actual costs incurred for completed work, plus a fee representing seller profit. Cost-reimbursable contracts may also include financial incentive clauses whenever the seller exceeds, or falls below, defined objectives such as costs, schedule, or technical performance targets.
Cost Plus Fixed Fee Contracts (CPFF). The seller is reimbursed for all allowable costs for performing the contract work, and receives a fixed-fee payment calculated as a percentage of the initial estimated project costs. A fee is paid only for completed work and does not change due to seller performance. Fee amounts do not change unless the project scope changes.
Cost Plus Incentive Fee Contracts (CPIF). The seller is reimbursed for all allowable costs for performing the contract work and receives a predetermined incentive fee based upon achieving certain performance objectives as set forth in the contract. In CPIF contracts, if the final costs are less or greater than the original estimated costs, then both the buyer and seller share costs from the departures based upon a prenegotiated cost-sharing formula, for example, an 80/20 split over/under target costs based on the actual performance of the seller.
Cost Plus Award Fee Contracts (CPAF). The seller is reimbursed for all legitimate costs, but the majority of the fee is earned only based on the satisfaction of certain broad subjective performance criteria defined and incorporated into the contract. The determination of fee is based solely on the subjective determination of seller performance by the buyer, and is generally not subject to appeals.
Time and Material Contracts (T&M). Time and Material Contracts (T&M). Time and material contracts are a hybrid type of contractual arrangement that contain aspects of both cost-reimbursable and fixed-price contracts. They are often used for staff augmentation, acquisition of experts, and any outside support when a precise statement of work cannot be quickly prescribed. These types of contracts resemble cost-reimbursable contracts in that they can be left open ended and may be subject to a cost increase for the buyer
The statements of work may include The statements of work may include, but are not limited to: • Specifications, • Quantity desired, • Quality levels, • Performance data, • Period of performance, • Work location, and • Other requirements.
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