ICT GCSE flashcards

Catherine Archer
Flashcards by , created about 4 years ago

ICT GCSE flashcards

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Catherine Archer
Created by Catherine Archer about 4 years ago
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Question Answer
Backup A copy of data that is made in case the original data is lost or damaged. The backup can be used to restore the original data.
Bandwidth The amount of data that can fit through an Internet connection. You can compare it to a ten-lane motorway which can fit more cars on it than a four-lane motorway. Bandwidth is measured in bits per second (bps). This indicates the number of bits of information that can fit down the line in one second. Kb or Kbps means thousands of bits per second; Mb or Mbps means millions of bits per second.
Blog Short for 'web log', a shared online journal where people can post diary entries about their personal experiences and hobbies.
Bluetooth Allows the exchange of data over short distances from fixed and mobile devices. In order for devices to communicate they must be able to understand the Bluetooth rules (protocols).
Broadband A high-speed connection to the Internet.
Browser A software application for retrieving, presenting and navigating information resources on the World Wide Web.
Cloud computing A system in which all computer programs and data is stored on a central server owned by a company (e.g. Google) and accessed virtually.
Conditional formatting A feature you can use to highlight values automatically. The colour can be made to change according to the value displayed. For example, you can use red to highlight negative values.
Copyright Gives the creator of an original work exclusive rights regarding that work for a certain period of time, including its publication, distribution and adaptation.
Data Symbols, characters, images and numbers are all types of data. When data is processed and acquires meaning it becomes information. Computers process data to produce information.
Firewall A system designed to prevent unauthorised access to your computer when connected to a network such as the Internet.
Flatfile database A database held as a single table. It is structured with a row for every record.
Function A formula used in a calculation, such as IF or SUM.
Hacker Someone who gains unauthorised access to a computer in order to obtain data stored on it.
Hardware The physical parts of a computer system, e.g. the CPU and the devices connected to it.
Hot desking Sharing desks or workstations between workers, as a way of saving space and resources.
Hotspot A venue that offers a WiFi Internet connection. Many are located in hotels and restaurants and lots of them are free.
Internet service provider (ISP) A company that provides Internet access to its customers.
IP (Internet Protocol) address The personal address of your computer (just like your home address), so that servers know where to send the information you have requested.
Malware Software that is designed to cause problems for users.
Netbook A small portable laptop computer designed for wireless communication and access to the Internet.
Network Devices connected together to allow communication and exchange of data.
Online forum An online message board where people can share their ideas and views.
Peripherals External devices connected to a computer, e.g. printer, microphone.
Phishing A form of Internet fraud that aims to steal valuable information such as credit card details, usernames and passwords.
Pixelation An effect caused by displaying a bitmap or a section of a bitmap at such a large size that individual pixels (small single-coloured squares that the image is made of) are visible to the eye.
Relational database A database that uses more than one table. Tables are linked together by common data items, such as ID number, known as keys.
Repetitive strain injury (RSI) Damage caused to the muscles, tendons, ligaments, nerves or joints, usually because of repeating the same action.
Sat nav A device, usually used in a car, that gives directions based on information received from a series of satellites.
SSL (Secure Sockets Layer) A method of encrypting data to provide security for communications over networks such as the Internet. TLS (Transport Layer Security) is a later version of SSL.
Social networking site An online community where people can communicate and share information.
Software Programs that give instructions to a computer and which allow the user to carry out different tasks.
Spam Unwanted or junk email sent to lots of recipients at the same time.
Spreadsheet model A simulation of a real-life situation. For example, a spreadsheet model might be used to help plan an event like a school trip or concert. The organisers could use a model to help them decide how much they need to charge to cover their costs.
Spyware Software that can be installed on your computer without your knowledge, which collects information about your logins and passwords and sends details to another computer on the Internet.
Streaming Content is sent in compressed form over the Internet and displayed by the viewer in real time. When streaming video, a web user does not have to wait to download a file to play it. Instead, the media is sent in a continuous stream of data and is played as it arrives on a special player.
Teleworking Working from home but staying in touch with others with the help of technology.
Trojan A program that appears legitimate but which performs some harmful activity when it is run. It may be used to locate password information, or make the system more vulnerable to future entry, or simply destroy programs or data on the hard disk drive. A trojan is similar to a virus except that it does not replicate itself. It stays in the computer doing its damage or allowing somebody from a remote site to take control of the computer. Trojans often sneak in attached to a free game.
Validation The process of checking that the data entered is reasonable or one of the expected options, e.g. that a person's age has not been entered as 200.
Verification The process of checking that the data entered is accurate. The data could be valid but still inaccurate, e.g. someone could enter their age as 81 when they are really 18.
Virus A program designed to cause other programs on a computer to malfunction or stop working altogether.
Wiki A type of website that encourages collaboration by allowing users to add, edit and remove content.
Wizard Part of a program that helps the user to create a new document, chart, etc. A sequence of dialogue boxes guides the user through the steps needed to create the item required.
Zip A compressed file format for emailing files or downloading.
Absolute Cell Referencing When the formula is copied to a new address, the cell address does not change
ASCII A code for representing binary
Batch processing All the inputs needed are put together and processed in one go
bcc Copy of an email sent to lots of people who are unable to see the email addresses of those people who are in the bcc area
Bitmap graphic Graph stored as a map, shows the position and colour of the individual dots of light. Called pixels
cc Copy of an email sent to more than one person
check digit A validation check. Used to check that a list of numbers entered are correct. For example, a bar code or ISBN
Copyright, Designs & Patents Act (1988) Makes it a criminal act to copy or steal software
Data Raw facts/figures
Data logging Method of recording data over a period of time
Data Protection Act (1998) A law that restricts the way personal information is stored and processed on a computer
Ergonomics An item/equipment designed to suit the natural movement of the body
Expert system an ICT system that copy's the decision making process of a human expert
file server high speed computer in a network that stores all the programs and files to be shared by the users.
Format checks A validation check. It checks that the data in the correct combination of characters. e.g. postcode
gigo Garbage in Garbage out. it means that if you enter poor data into a computer then you'll get rubbish data out.
GUI graphic user interface. Allows users to interact with a computer via icons and menus
HTML hypertext markup language. The programming language of the www.
Information data that has been processed by the computer
Key field or primary key. A field that uniquely identifies a record in a database
LAN local area network
WAN Wide Area network
MICR magnetic ink character recognition. input method - to check number printed in ink. e.g. numbers printed on a cheque
Microprocessor The brain of the computer. processes the input data to produce information
Motherboard The central circuit board of the computer.
OCR optical character recognition. Input method - to read the characters into the computer
OMR optical mark reader. Input method - read the marks on a piece of paper. e.g. lottery ticket
Operating system software Software that controls the hardware and software
Peer-to-Peer network Each computer is of equal status in the network
Print server A high speed computer on a network with the responsibility of looking after the printer & print jobs
RAM random access memory. Is temporary /volatile. It will lose its memory when the computer is switched off
ROM read only memory. permenent/non volatile. it will not lose its memory when the computer is switched off
RFID radio frequency identification. small data chip that uses radio signals to send/receive data.
Router Network hardware device. Used to decide the pathway that data should take in the network
Sensor Input device to record physical quantities e.g. temperature, pressure
Style sheets A template /a document that sets out the font, size, colour of an entire document/website
Transcription error Error made when characters are swapped around so they are in the wrong order. e.g. erorr
Transposition error Error made when characters are swapped around so they in the wrong order. eg. erorr
Validation checks rules created to test that data entered meet a specific criteria. To prevent errors
WIMP windows, icons, menus, pointers
Open Source Software that is free to use and download. Software that users can change (re-program) and improve if they wish.
Proprietary software Software that you pay for. That can not be changed in anyway.
Hosted application/software Software that is NOT installed on your computer. Software that you access via the internet. Software that another company looks after.
Installed software Software installed on your computer. You don't need access to the internet to use it. You are responsible for updating it