Animal Nutrition - Components of an animal's diet

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For Animal Management Animal Nutrition Unit 319 Task A - Components of an animal's diet

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Animal Nutrition Task A Components of an animal's diet What are the Major Nutrients? 1. Carbohydrates 2. Proteins 3. Fats 4. Water 5. Vitamins 6. Minerals
Carbohydrates Why are Carbohydrates needed? Carbohydrates are needed in the body as they provide energy. The energy is needed for movement. Proteins Why are proteins needed? Proteins are needed in the body as they are used for growth, repair of cells, and reproduction. They are also used for tissue building. Protein is especially vital during pregnancy.
Fats Why are fats needed? Fats are needed in the body to help to provide insulation. They help to keep the animals warm. Also fats are stored as a second source of energy. Water Why is water needed? This is needed as it helps to replace any lost fluids. Loss of fluids include: 1. Sweating 2. Urinating The water will stop animals from becoming dehydrated. If an animal does get dehydrated it can cause serious health issues. Water aids in the process of digestion. Water helps to regulate body temperature. Water also transports nutrients around the body.
Vitamins Why are vitamins needed? 1. Vitamin A helps with body growth, and cell division. 2.. Vitamin B helps to reduce the risk of stress. 3. Vitamin C helps to promote healing 4. Vitamin D helps to reduce the risk of getting a bone disease. This disease is known as rickets. 5. Vitamin E is used to keep skin and fur healthy. 6. Vitamin K is needed as it known to help with reproductions. Minerals Why are minerals needed? They are used in the structure and building of strong bones and teeth. There two forms of minerals. Macro minerals and Micro minerals.
Macro minerals What are Macro minerals? Macro minerals are found in larger levels of minerals. Macro minerals include: 1. Sulphur 2. Sodium 3. Potassium 4. Calcium 5. Chloride 6. Phosphorous
Sulphur Where is it found? Sulphur is found in nuts, amino acids and proteins (meat). Functions Sulphur aids in enzyme reactions and the process of protein synthesis. Sulphur is used in the formation of Collagen which forms the connective tissue. Sulphur is present in Keratin which maintains skin, hair and nails which gives strength, shape and hardness to the proteins tissues. Functions of Sulphur continued Sulphur is important to cellular respiration, as it is needed in the oxidation reduction reactions that help the cells utilize oxygen, which aids with brain function and all cell activity. Also sulphur is found in insulin and aids in the process of metabolising carbohydrates.
Sodium Where is Sodium found? Sodium is found in blood, eggs, meat, fish and salt. Functions Sodium prevents cells from swelling and becoming dehydrated. Sodium helps maintain the cellular environment. Sodium also maintains the correct working order of nerve and muscle cell function. Potassium Where is Potassium found? Potassium is present in every cell of the body? Functions Potassium activates enzymes. Potassium also aids in the metabolising of Carbohydrates and Proteins. Potassium maintains the water balance in the body and also it helps to maintain the acid-base levels in the body with the help of Sodium.
Calcium Where is Calcium found? Calcium is found in milk and other diary products. Functions Calcium is used to maintain general body health and to build strong bones and teeth. calcium is also used for muscle function and vascular contraction. Phosphorous Where is Phosphorous found? Phosphorous is found in Protein foods (meat and eggs). Functions Phosphorous helps to form bones and teeth. phosphorous is vital in the production of energy (respiration)
Chloride Where is Chloride found? Chloride is found in salts and vegetables. Functions Chloride generates the osmotic pressure of the body fluids. Chloride is an important component of stomach hydrochloric acid which is the key to the digestive acid. Micro Minerals What are Micro minerals? Micro minerals are found in lower levels of minerals.
Micro minerals include: 1. Copper 2. Iodine 3. Magnesium 4. Iron 5. Zinc 6. Manganese 7. Cobalt Copper Where is Copper found? Copper can be found in most food sources. Functions Copper is a structural component of soft tissue. Copper is used in the oxidation-reduction process. Copper is a part of the cytochrome system for cell respiration which is an energy releasing process.
Iodine Where is Iodine found? Iodine can be found in species that live in the water. Fish, shellfish and sea vegetables (seaweed). Functions Iodine is used in the production of the Thyroid hormones, and regulates thyroid function. Magnesium Where is Magnesium found? Magnesium can be found in seafood and vegetables. Functions Magnesium is a component of bone, cartilage and the exo-skeleton. Magnesium is used in the activation of enzymes. Magnesium is also used as a natural tranquillizer which is used to relax the skeletal muscles and the smooth blood vessels.
Iron Where is Iron found? Iron is found in cereals and breads. Functions Iron is a component of various enzyme systems. Iron is used in the formation of haemoglobin and myoglobin. Zinc Where is Zinc found? Zinc is found in red meat and oysters. Functions Zinc is used to heal injuries and wounds. Zinc utilizes and maintains the bodies levels of Vitamin A and helps promote healthy skin cells and helps to generate new skin cells.
Manganese Where is Manganese found? Manganese can be found in nuts and whole grain foods. Functions Manganese is used in enzyme activation. Manganese is a catalyst for many biochemical reactions in the body. Cobalt Where is Cobalt found? Cobalt can be found in meat, liver, kidney, clams, oysters and milk. Functions Cobalt is a component of cyanocobalamin which is essential for the formation of red blood cells.
Metabolism What is metabolism? Metabolism is the process in which the body makes energy. Metabolic Pathways Metabolic pathways are the ways in which the body creates energy that can be used by cells. This happens by breaking down glucose. Each stage of the metabolic process releases energy that carry molecules. 1. ATP (Adenosine Triphosphate) 2. FADH2 (Flavin Adenine Dinucleotic) Glycolysis This is the first stage of the metabolism. During this process glucose is converted into: 1. Two molecules of Pyruvate. 2. Two molecules of ATP 3. Two molecules of the enzyme NADH This generally occurs in the cytoplasm in the cell.
The Krebs Cycle This is the second stage of metabolism. The Pyruvate that was produced during the first stage is then converted in acetyl CoA. The krebs cycle then converts the acetyl CoA into: 1. Carbon Dioxide 2. Two molecules of NADH 3. Two molecules of FADH2. This process generally occurs in the mitochondria. Oxidative Phosphorylation This is known as the electron transport chain. This is the last stage of metabolism. During the electron transport chain the NADH and the FADH2 molecules react to the oxygen. This creates a large amount of energy specifically 34 molecules of ATP is released. Glucose is stored in the body as glycogen. Glycogen is stored in the muscles and it is used to maintain the blood sugar levels.
Digestive System of a Dog Dog are single stomached animals. This means that there is only one stomach and one compartment.
Metabolising & Digesting Carbohydrates in Dogs (single stomached) Carbohydrates begin to metabolise in the small intestines where monosaccharides are absorbed into the blood stream. Blood sugar concentrations are controlled by three hormones: insulin, glucagon, and epinephrine. If the concentration of glucose in the blood is too high, insulin is released by the pancreas. The insulin stimulates the transfer of glucose into the cells, especially in the liver and muscles, although other organs are also capable of metabolising glucose. Metabolising & Digesting Carbohydrates in Dogs (single stomached) Most of the glucose is changed into glycogen in the liver and muscles by a process known as glycogenesis (anabolism). Glycogen is stored in the liver and muscles until it is needed later when glucose levels are low. If blood glucose levels are low, eqinephrine and glucogon hormones are released to stimulate the conversion of glycogen to glucose. This process is known as glycogenolysis (catabolism). If glucose is needed immediately upon entering the cells to supply energy, it begins the metabolic process called glycoysis (catabolism).
Metabolising & Digesting Proteins in Dogs (single stomached) Digesting the protein in the foods you eat involves unfolding the protein chain and then unlinking the amino acids that is consists of. Once the amino acids are absorbed by the body, they are incorporated into new proteins that your body synthesizes as needed. The digestion of protein occurs in your stomach and small intestines with the help of enzymes that are released by the pancreas.
Metabolising & Digesting Proteins in Dogs (single stomached) Once you have chewed and swallowed your food, the low pH of the stomach acid begins to unfold the proteins that are consumed. The unfolding of the proteins is important as it allows the digestive enzymes to access the bonds that are holding the individual amino acids together. The gastric juice in the stomach contains a protease, or protein degrading enzyme, called pepsin. Pepsin cleaves the large and unfolded protein molecule into smaller pieces of protein known as peptides. The micro-organisms you may inadvertently consume with your food usually die in the presence of your stomach acid. The proteins they contain join the pool of food proteins in the digestive process. Metabolising & Digesting Proteins in Dogs (single stomached) The pancreatic enzymes function is to cleave the peptide mixture into even smaller peptides and then finally into individual amino acids. Each digestive enzyme works by separating specific amino acids from the short peptide chains until a group of free amino acids remains. The group of individual amino acids becomes absorbed through the intestinal villi, where they then enter the bloodstream and then your cells as and when they are needed.
Metabolising & Digesting Fats in Dogs (single stomached) The metabolism of fats begins when a gland under the tongue releases the fat-splitting enzyme lingual lipase. Gastric lipase, which is released by cells in the stomach, continues to work on the fat molecules as the muscles of the stomach wall act like a blender mixing the contents of the stomach. Metabolising & Digesting Fats in Dogs (single stomached) In the small intestine, the smaller fat components are absorbed by the layer of cells lining the intestinal wall. Short-chain fatty acids with less than 14 carbon atoms go straight to the portal vein where they bind to the protein albumin. They then travel to the liver to either be used for energy or turned into longer chains if they are needed. Fatty acids with 14 or more carbons are reformed into triglycerides and packaged into lipoproteins called chylomicrons. Chylomicrons are sent through the lymph stream before slowly being released into the bloodstream.
Metabolising & Digesting Water in Dogs (single stomached) Water is absorbed almost immediately after consumption. The journey starts in the digestive tract in the mouth. Water that is consumed alone moves through the system more quickly than solid food. The water that is drunk during and after feed times mixes with the feed and helps the body digest it more efficiently by breaking it down. Metabolising & Digesting Water in Dogs (single stomached) Water is mainly absorbed in the small intestines, along with any minerals it contains. The small intestines are well-suited for this task, as its lining is covered with small villi. The villi increases the surface area and improves the absorption of nutrients. Water and nutrients from food are absorbed into the bloodstream through these structures.
Metabolising & Digesting Vitamins and Minerals in Dogs (single stomached) Vitamins and minerals are broken down, digested and absorbed similarly in the body. There are a variety of vitamins and minerals that are needed in the diet to support each and every function. Vitamins are organic compounds which are made by plants, animals and humans. Minerals are inorganic elements, occurring naturally in soil and water. Plants absorb minerals through their roots and you absorb the minerals when you eat the plant food. Animals also eat plants. This means that you can also get some minerals indirectly by consuming foods which originate from animal sources. Metabolising & Digesting Vitamins and Minerals in Dogs (single stomached) The digestion of Vitamins and Minerals start in the mouth when you chew the food. When the food enters the stomach, hydrochloric acid and other stomach enzymes help release the nutrients. The pancreas helps by releasing bile that aids with digestion. From this point, the vitamins and minerals travel to the small intestine, where they are absorbed into the bloodstream. The blood carries the nutrients to the liver, where they are instantly used, and stored for later use or sent to the kidneys for excretion through urine.
Ruminant Animals What is a ruminant animal? A ruminant animal is different to other animals. This is because most animals are single stomached, they only have one stomach compartment. Ruminant animals have have a four compartment stomach. There is approximately 150 species of ruminant animals. These include: Cows, cattle, goats, camels, giraffes, llamas and deer. Why are some animals ruminant? Some animals are ruminant as they have a different digestive system compared to single stomached animals. This is the result of the diet.
Ruminant Animals continued Ruminant animals need four compartments to cope with the digestion of grass and vegetation Ruminant animals do not completely chew the grass or vegetation that they consume. The partially chewed grass/vegetation goes into the large rumen where it is stored and broken down into balls of “cud”. When the animal has eaten, it will rest and “chew its cud”. The cud is then swallowed once again. This pass into the next three compartments: the reticulum, the omasum and the abomasum. Rumen The rumen is the first compartment of the stomach. The rumen is the largest section of the stomach. It is a large storage section that has many sacs. There are numerous helpful bacteria that are in the rumen which digests the feed.
Rumen continued When food is in the rumen, the bacteria digests the fibre. This turns the fibre into fatty acids, proteins and Vitamin B's. The rumen has a good blood supply, the nutrients are easily absorbed by the body for. After this part of the digestive process, the "digesta," as the food is termed, heads to the reticulum for the next phase of digestion.. Reticulum The reticulum is the second compartment of the stomach. The fluids that are found in the reticulum aid in particle separation. The separation takes place through two phases. The first phase includes sending large particles back to the rumen while the reticulo-omasal orifice enables the passage of finer particles. During the second phase the reticulum contracts completely so the empty reticulum can refill with contents from the rumen. These contents are then sorted in the next contraction. The contractions occur in regular intervals. High density particles can settle into the honeycomb structures and therefore can be found at slaughter. It is during the contractions of the reticulum that sharp objects can penetrate the wall and make their way to the heart.
Omasum The omasum is the third compartment of the stomach. The omasum us pathway to the abomasum. It filters large particles and send them back tot the reticulorumen. It also enables fine particles and fluid to be passed to the abomasum. Omasum continued Although it is unknown what the complete function of the omasum is is known that it aids in the resorption of water and the recycling of the buffers for the saliva. The omasum is also capable of absorbing some volatile fatty acids.
Abomasum This is the fourth compartment of the stomach. The abomasum is also known as the “true stomach.” The abomasum just like a human stomach produces acid and some enzymes to start the digestion of proteins. Animals that go off feed can develop a displaced abomasum. The abomasum will float out of place and become twisted. This stops the flow of digestion. A displaced abomasum can happen in cattle that have severe digestive problems. Surgery is the only cure for a displaced abomasum.
Metabolising & Digesting Carbohydrates in Cows (ruminant) When food is eaten by cows, the nutrients are generally in the form of carbohydrates, proteins and fats. These are digested to products, which are either used directly by cows or by the microbes in the rumen. Plant tissue dry matter is about 75% carbohydrates. Microbial fermentation breaks carbohydrates down into simple sugars. The microbes generally tend to use these sugars as an energy source for their own growth. Also they are used to make end products, which are then used by the cows. The end products of microbial fermentation of the carbohydrates include the following: 1. Volatile fatty acids. This is mainly acetate, propionate and butyrate. 2. Gases. These gases include carbon dioxide and methane.
Metabolising & Digesting Carbohydrates in Cows (ruminant) Rumen microbes break down all carbohydrates. However the soluble and storage forms are broken down more quickly than the structural forms. Sugars and starches are broken down easily and quickly. As plants mature their cell walls become more rigid. The lignin reduces the availability and utilisation of structural carbohydrates. As plants mature, their digestibility decreases because the components of their cell walls become less accessible and more difficult to digest. Soluble carbohydrates are digested 100 times faster by the microbes in the rumen than storage carbohydrates are. While storage carbohydrates are digested about five times faster than structural carbohydrates. Structural Carbohydrates Cellulose and hemi-cellulose are bacteria that digest structural carbohydrates. This produces a large proportion of acetic acid,. This is important in the production of milk fat. These bacteria are sensitive to fats and acidity in the rumen. If feeds contain too much fat or if the rumen becomes too acidic through feeding rapidly digestible carbohydrates, these bacteria can become completely destroyed or their growth rate cane be slowed down.
Structural Carbohydrates Reduction or loss of these bacteria not only reduces the digestibility of the feed, but it may also reduce the cow’s intake of feed. Once structural carbohydrates have passed through the rumen, there is little chance that they will be broken down any further. Storage Carbohydrates The bacteria that digest starchy feeds are different from the cellulose digesting bacteria. The bacteria are more intensive to acidity and they produce mainly propionic acid. Starches are quickly broken down. The lactic and propionic acid causes the acid levels to increase. The acidity is caused by excess starch digesting bacteria. This can suppress the bacteria that digest cellulose and reduce the milk fat level.
Soluble Sugars The bacteria that breaks down the feeds high in soluble sugars are similar to the bacteria that break down starch. Sugary feeds generally cause less problems with increased acidity in the rumen than starchy feeds. However, sugary feeds need to be introduced to a cow’s diet slowly. Metabolising & Digesting Proteins in Cows When proteins are digested they are broken down in to peptides. Peptides are short chains of amino acids. Digestion of peptides yields individual amino acids and eventually ammonia. The protein used by cows may be from the feed they eats or from the microbes that are washed from the rumen.
Metabolising & Digesting Proteins in Cows (ruminant) Feed proteins are broken down by micro-organisms in the rumen through amino acids into ammonia and fatty acid chains. Non-protein nitrogen from the feed and the urea are recycled into the rumen through the saliva. The rumen wall contributes also to the pool of ammonia in the rumen. If ammonia levels in the rumen are too low there will be a nitrogen shortage. The bacteria and the feed will decrease in the performance of digestion. Too much ammonia in the rumen leads to wastage, ammonia toxicity, and in extreme cases can lead to the death of the animal. Metabolising & Digesting Proteins in Cows (ruminant) The bacteria uses ammonia which enables it to grow. The ammonia that is used to synthesize microbial protein depends upon the amount of energy that is generated by the fermentation of carbohydrates. The percentage of protein in bacteria varies from 38 to 55%. However, when cows eat more feed, the bacteria contain more protein. This passes from the rumen to the abomasum at a must quicker pace.
Metabolising & Digesting Fats in Cows (ruminant) Fats are a source of energy for cows. Fats are either partially degraded in the rumen or they assume a bypass and become a protected form. When microbial fermentation of fats occurs in the rumen, some vitamins required by the cow are also produced. Fats are present in most of the more common dairy feeds in relatively small amounts. No more than 5% of the total diet dry matter should consist of fats.
Metabolising & Digesting Fats in Cows (ruminant) After this level, the fat will coat the dietary fibre in the digestive tract. This interferes with the digestion of fibre and decreasing the palatability of the diet. Protected fats that escape microbial digestion in the rumen, can be used to overcome the digestive problems that are caused by high levels of rumen degradable fat. The protected fats are readily digested and absorbed across the wall of the small intestines.
Metabolising & Digesting Water in Cows (ruminant) Water is essential in ruminant animals. Water aids in digestion and the absorption of nutrients. The amount of water in an ruminants diet is similar to the amount of feed that is required daily. Water is absorbed in the small intestines. Metabolising & Digesting Vitamins and Minerals in Cows (ruminant) Minerals are mainly found in bones and teeth. Vitamins are only needed in small amounts. Vitamins and minerals are broken down, digested and they are absorbed in similar ways. The digestion of Vitamins and Minerals start in the mouth when the cows chew the feed. As soon as the feed enters the digestive system it is broken down, digested and absorbed. The vitamins and minerals are absorbed in the small intestines and the blood stream.
Monosaccharides What are Monosaccarides? Monosaccharide is a term for a simple sugar. The types of simple sugars that are found in food include: 1. Glucose 2. Fructose 3. Galactose
Disaccharides What are Disaccharides? Disaccharides is a sugar that is composed of two monosaccharides. It is formed when two sugars are joined together and a water molecule is removed.
Fatty Acids What are Fatty Acids? A Fatty acid is a carboxylic acid with a long chain. This is either saturated or unsaturated. Fatty acids are the building blocks of fat in the body and they are produced when fats are broken down and digested in the body.
Amino Acids What are Amino Acids? Amino acids are a simple organic compound that contains both Carboxyl (-COOH) and an Amino (-NH2) group.
Dipeptides What are Dipeptides? Dipeptides are molecules that are made up of 2 amino acids.
Bibliography http://www.pnas.org/content/93/5/1792.full.pdf http://www.une.edu.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0019/72910/Ruminant-Digestive-System-and-Ruminant-Nutrition-June-2014.pdf http://www.lf3.cuni.cz/opencms/export/sites/www.lf3.cuni.cz/en/departments/chemie/vyuka/studijni-materialy/CSFBXX41C/prednasky/jf_lecture_minerals.pdf http://www.expertconsultbook.com/expertconsult/op/book.do?method=display&type=bookPage&decorator=none&eid=4-u1.0-B978-1-4160-2911-3..X5001-8--section7&isbn=978-1-4160-2911-3 http://www.omafra.gov.on.ca/english/livestock/beef/facts/91-066.htm www.academia.edu/2391242/Ruminant_Digestion_and_Absorption
http://www.livestrong.com/article/463013-digestion-of-vitamins-minerals/ journals.cambridge.org/action/displayAbstract?fromPage=online&aid=607096&fileId=S0954422401000117 http://www.publish.csiro.au /?act=view_file&file_id=SA0501041.pdf http://aitc.ca/bc/uploads/ruminants.pdf http://bizplan-uz.com/learning/course/?COURSE_ID=6&CHAPTER_ID=0110&LESSON_PATH=8.110 http://animalscience-old.tamu.edu/ beef-skillathon/nutrition_digestivesystem.html http://www.une.edu.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0019/72910/Ruminant-Digestive-System-and-Ruminant-Nutrition-June-2014.pdf http://www.scienceclarified.com/Ma-Mu/Metabolism.html http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1541739 http://www.journalofanimalscience.org/content/57/Supplement_2/519.full.pdf Church, D.E. 1984. Livestock Feeds and Feeding. Corvallis: O&B Books. http://www.milkproduction.com/Library/Scientific-articles/Nutrition/Minerals/ Modelling Nutrient Digestion and Utilisation in Farm Animals Wageningen Academic Pub, 2010
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