The Rock Cycle

eimearkelly3
Flashcards by , created almost 6 years ago

The Rock Cycle

486
1
0
eimearkelly3
Created by eimearkelly3 almost 6 years ago
Globalisation Case Studies
annie
Continents & Oceans
Thomas Yoachim
Geography Quiz - Tectonics
oscartaylor
KING LEAR
Felicity Baines
Chemistry unit 2
36jessieh
The Rock Cycle
eimearkelly3
River Processes and Landforms
1jdjdjd1
Volcanoes
1jdjdjd1
GCSE Geography - Causes of Climate Change
Beth Coiley
Tectonic Hazards flashcards
katiehumphrey
Question Answer
Sediments are transported by wind, water, and ice
process of lithification compression, compaction, cementing
layers in sedimentary rocks strata
rocks are broken down into sediments by denudation (weathering and erosion)
Rocks are destroyed at Subduction zones
Igneous rocks are formed by Magma/lava cools and becomes solid
examples of igneous rocks basalt, granite, pumice
Sedimentary rocks form Sediments (plants, remains of animals, rocks), accumulate, compress, compact, and cement into a solid
examples of sedimentary rocks limestone, shale, sandstone, conglomerate, coal
Metamorphic rock is formed by rocks being changed by great heat and/or pressure
examples of metamorphic rocks marble, quartzite, gneiss, slate, schist
Types of igneous rocks Plutonic (Intrusive) Volcanic (Extrusive)
Plutonic (intrusive) rock Granite
Granite forms when magma cools slowly within the Earth's crust
Granite has _____ crystals because Large crystals because the magma cooled slowly
Granite is _______ in texture Coarse
Colour of granite and why it varies The colour of granite varies from white, grey, pink, to black. It varies because of different percentages of the minerals mica, feldspar, and quartz.
Granite formed ______ million year ago during the ________ foldings Granite formed 400 million years ago during the Caledonian foldings
Where can granite be found? The Mourne Mountains Co. Down The Dublin-Wicklow Mountains - The Leinster Batholith
Granite is ______ and ______ and is therefore used for ___________ Granite is strong and resistant and is used as a building material
Other uses of granite Kitchen worktops Fireplaces
When granite is weathered it produces Clay
Volcanic (extrusive) rock Basalt
Basalt formed when Magma cooled outside the Earth's crust
Size of crystals in basalt and why Small crystals (microscopic) because the lava cooled quickly when it was exposed to the elements
Texture of basalt Fine-to-medium-grained
Colour of basalt Black to dark grey
Minerals in basalt Feldspar, quartz
Properties of basalt and what they make it appropriate for Hard, resistant Used for road construction (too dark for buildings)
Where can basalt be found The Antrim-Derry Plateau --> The Giant's Causeway
Sedimentary rocks form from The build up of sediments over millions of years
Process of lithification Accumulation, compression, compaction, and cementing into solid rock
Layers in sedimentary rock Strata
Horizontal weaknesses in sedimentary rock Bedding planes
Vertical weaknesses in sedimentary rocks Joints
Permeability of sedimentary rocks Permeable
examples of organic sedimentary rocks limestone, coal
examples of inorganic sedimentary rocks sandstone and conglomerate
Organic sedimentary rocks come from The remains of once living organisms e.g. plants and animals
Organic sedimentary rock Limestone
Formation of limestone Limestone formed on the bed of warm, tropical, shallow seas about 350 million years ago when Ireland lay close to the Equator (Carboniferous era)
Process of lithification in limestone Over time the bodies of dead marine creatures e.g. shells, coral, teeth, skeletons etc. accumulate on the sea floor. The weight of water and the great weight of the water caused compression, compaction, and cementing into solid limestone.
Cement in limestone Calcium carbonate from shells
Limestone is weathered by Carbonation
Limestone may contain Fossils as it forms at temperatures that do not destroy fossil remains.
Colour variation in limestone and why Limestone varies in colour white to grey to black depending on impurities in the water.
Uses of limestone Cement and in construction
Where is limestone found and what kind of landscape is it? The Burren Co. Clare - Karst landscape
Chalk Pure white form of limestone
Inorganic sedimentary rocks form from The remains of pre-existing rocks e.g. sand, clay, pebbles
Sediments are transported by ______ to _____ Sediments are transported by wind, water, and moving ice to lakes, oceans and seas.
Lithification of inorganic sedimentary rocks Sediments are compressed, compacted, and cemented under the weight of water and overlying layers
Inorganic sedimentary rock Sandstone
Where can sandstone be found in Ireland? The mountains of Munster e.g. Caha
sandstone in Munster is also known as old red sandstone
texture of sandstone coarse
colour of sandstone and why red or brown because of the presence of iron oxide
Formation of sandstone Sandstone formed 400 million years ago, when Ireland had a desert type climate. It formed when sand or quartz deposited on land or in water were compressed and cemented together.
Sanstone is porous which means that it can hold oil or gas
Uses of sandstone building rock e.g. front of houses and road chippings
Where can sandstone be found? Comeragh mountains Co. Waterford Magillycuddy's Reeks Co.Kerry
Shale Clay compacted
Coal Vegetation
mudstone mud
Metamorphic rocks are formed when igneous or sedimentary rocks under change due to great heat and/or pressure
Thermal/contact metamorphism When heat causes the rocks to change/metamorphose
Types of metamorphism Regional/dynamic Thermal/contact
examples of metamorphic rocks marble, quartzite
Effects of metamorphism on: hardness colour chemical composition foliation Rock is harder than original Colour may change due to the effect of heat Mineral crystals may be rearranged to form foliated metamorphic rock e.g. gneiss Heat and pressure may cause the rock minerals to recombine to form different minerals in the metamorphic rock.
Sandstone that changed due to great heat and pressure Quartzite
The spaces between the grains of quartz are filled with _____ from ______ The spaces between the grains of quartz are filled with silica from magma
Permeability of sandstone The silica and quartz re packed very tightly together making quartzite very resistant to erosion.
Colour of quarzite light-coloured rock, often white
Where can quartzite be found? The peaks of mountains such as Croagh Patrick Co.Mayo and the Sugarloaf Co.Wicklow
Uses of quartzite and why It is a hard rock and is therefore used for road surfacing
When limestone is changed by heat and/or pressure the resulting rock is Marble
Properties of marble Hard, crystalline rock
Colours of marble and where they can be found Green (Connemara), white (Rathlin Island Co. Antrim), red (Cork),
White marble comes from Pure limestone changing in composition
What causes marble not to be pure white and give examples Impurities e.g. clay, silt, sand, iron oxides
Uses of marble Marble can be cut and polished and used for kitchen worktops, gravestones, ornaments, fireplaces, and building materials (extracting for building materials by quarrying)
examtime.jpg (image/jpg) Basalt
examtime.jpg (image/jpg) Sandstone
examtime.jpg (image/jpg) Quartzite
examtime.jpg (image/jpg) Granite
examtime.jpg (image/jpg) Limestone
examtime.jpg (image/jpg) Marble