chemistry - Atomic Structure and Periodic Table


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Jael R-C
Flashcards by Jael R-C, updated more than 1 year ago
Jael R-C
Created by Jael R-C over 5 years ago

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Question Answer
What is an atom? Atoms are the smallest part of an element that can exist
What are differences between an element and a compound? Elements are only made of one type of atom, While compounds contain two or more types of atom bonded together
How are compounds formed? Through chemical reactions
What is the trend when naming compounds? Compounds containing only two elements end in "ide" e.g. sodium chloride. compounds containing two elements plus oxygen together end in "ate" e.g. sodium carbonate.
What is a mixture? A mixture consists of two or more elements or compounds that are not chemically bonded
How are mixtures separated? Mixtures can be separated in different ways. These include: liquid and solid by filtration, two liquids by distillation, fractional distillation and chromatography
How do you extract dissolved solids? Dissolved compounds/ elements can be purified by crystallisation
What is the atomic model proposed by J.J. Thomson? The plum pudding model which had a ball of positive charge with negative bits in
what key information about the atom was found in Rutherford's scattering experiment? Rutherford's scattering experiment discovered that the atom consists of empty space and the presence of a nucleus
What did Bohr propose? Bohr suggested that electrons orbited the nucleus
What are the relative charges of protons, neutrons and electrons? Protons have a +1 charge, neutrons have a 0 charge and electrons have a -1 charge
In an atom, what is the trend between number of protons and number of electrons? In an atom, the number of protons = the number of electrons
Where can I find the number of proton on the Periodic Table? The number of protons is called the "atomic number" or "proton number" on the Periodic Table
What part of the nucleus makes elements different? Each element has a different number of protons: H = 1, Na = 11 and Ca = 20
Define a nanometer 1nm = 1x10-9m and 1m = 1x109nm
What is the relative size of a proton, neutron and electron? The mass of a proton = 1, a neutron = 1 and an electron = 1/2000
What is the atomic mass? Number of protons + number of neutrons = Atomic mass
Define an Isotope? Isotopes are atoms of the same elements that have the same number of protons but different number of neutrons
What is the trend of electrons in the first three electron shells? Electrons fill energy levels like so: 2 in the first, 8 in the second and 8 in the third (2,8,8)
Do electrons fill the highest energy level or the lowest energy level first? Electrons fill the lowest energy level first
What is the trend between group number and electron configuration? The number of electrons in the outer shell of the atom tells you what Group it is in on the Periodic Table
How is the Periodic Table organised? The elements in the Periodic Table go along by increasing number of protons
Why are elements organised into groups? Elements in the same group have similar reactivity and chemical properties. The groups (columns) tell you how many electrons are in the outer most shell
What do the rows tell you in the Periodic Table? The period (rows) tell you how many shells an atom has
How was the Periodic Table organised? The elements in the Periodic Table were organised by the atomic weights
What was the problem with the early Periodic Table? It was incomplete and some elements were inappropriate groups because they were order by atomic weight
What did Mendeleev do? Left gaps for undiscovered elements and arranged elements by properties not atomic weight
What did knowledge of isotopes lead to? It led to an explanation for why atomic wasn't the right order
What are group 1 elements referred as? Alkali metals
What are the similarities and difference with alkali metals? Group 1 metals have similar properties because they have 1 electron in their outer shell. Reactivity increases going down the group
What do alkali metals react with? Alkali metals react with oxygen, chlorine and water
How are ions formed? Metals react to form positive ions by losing electrons. Non- metals react to form negative ions by gaining electrons
Why are Group 0 elements called Noble Gases? Group 0 elements are called the "Noble Gases" because they are very unreactive
Why are Noble Gases unreactive? What trends do you see? Group 0 elements are unreactive because they have a full outer shell of electrons. As you go down Group 0, their boiling points increase.
What are Group 7 elements known as? Why do they have similar properties? Group 7 elements are known as the "Halogens" and they react similarly because they all have 7 electrons in their outer shell
What is trend of properties as you go down group 7? As you go down the group, the elements weight, melting and boiling point increase. As you go down group 7, the halogens become less reactive
What happens when a halogen reacts with a metal? Group 7 elements react with metals to form salts ending in "ide" e.g. sodium chloride.
What happens when you introduce a more reactive halogen to a salt containing a less reactive halogen? A more reactive halogen can displace a less reactive halogen from a salt
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