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Flashcards on Phr, created by rjkro1 on 08/11/2013.

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Created by rjkro1 almost 6 years ago
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Women in Nazi Germany - Flashcards
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Human Resource Development
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Human Resources Flashcards
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Business Management and Strategy
Van T
Question Answer
Ability Competence in performing a job
Productivity Measure of how much value individual employees add to the goods or services that organization produces
Line employee Employee directly involved in producing goods and services
Manager Person in charge of others for timely and correct execution of actions that promote units success
Staff employee Employee who supports line employee
Environmental challenges Forces external to a firm that effect performance but are beyond control of management
Hr People who work in an organization also called personnel
Human resources strategy Firms deliberate use of human resources to help gain or maintain an edge against its competitors in marketplace
Human resource tactic A particular hr policy or program that helps to advance a firms strategic goal
Organizational challenges Concerns or problems internal to a firm often a by product of environmental forces
TQM Organization wide approach to improving the quality of all the processes that lead to a final product and service
Decentralization Transferring responsibility and decision making authority from a central office to people and locations closer to situation
Downsizing A reduction in a company's workforce to improve its bottom line
Organizational culture Basic assumptions and beliefs shared by members of an organization . Operate unconsciously define in a basic taken for granted views of itself and environment
Outsourcing Subcontracting work to an outside company that specializes in and is more efficient at doing that work
Individual challenges Human resources issues that address the decisions most pertinent to individual employee
Motivation Persons desire to do best possible job or to exert maximum effort
Empowerment Providing workers c skills and authority to make decisions that would traditionally be made by managers
Strategic human resource planning Process of formulating hr strategies and establishing programs or tactics to implement
Strategic hr choices Options available to a firm designing its hr system
Corporate strategy Mix if businesses a corporation decides to hold and flow of resources among those businesses
Business unit strategy Formulation and implementation of strategies by a firm that is relatively autonomous
Distinctive competences Characteristics that give a firm a competitive edge
Hr audit Periodic review of effectiveness of a companys use of hr
2 Organizational structure Formal or informal relationships c people in organizatiom
Work flow Way work is organized to meet production or service goals
Bureaucratic organizational structure Pyramid shaped structure that consists of hierarchy w many levels
Flat organizational structure Structure that has only a few levels of management and emphasizes decentralization
Boundaryless org structure Structure that enables an organization to form relationships c customers/competitors to pool resources for mutual benefit or encourage cooperation in uncertain environment
Work flow analysis Process of examining how work creates or adds value to the ongoing processes of business
Business processing reengineering BPR Fundamental rethinking and radical redesign of business processes to achieve dramatic improvements in cost, quality speed and service
Team Small number of people c complementary skills who work toward common goals for which they hold themselves mutually accountable
Self managed team SMT Team responsible for producing an entire product, a component an ongoing service
Problem solving team Team c volunteers from a unit who meet one or two hours per week to discuss quality improvement cost reduction or improvement in work environment
Special purpose team Team or task force consisting of workers who span functional or organizational boundaries and whose purpose is to examine complex issues
Virtual team Team that relies on interactive technology to work together when separated by physical distance
Motivation That which energizes directs or sustains human behavior. In hrm a persons desire to do the best job or exert maximum effort
Job design Process of organizing work into the tasks required to perform a specific job
Job enlargement Process if expanding a jobs duties
Job rotation Process of rotating workers among different narrowly defined tasks without disrupting the flow if work
Job enrichment Process of putting specialized tasks back together so that one person is responsible for producing a whole product or entire service
Job analysis Systematic process of collecting information used to make decisions about jobs. Job analysis identifies the tasks duties and responsibilities of a particular job
KSA Knowledge skills abilities Needed to perform a job
Job description Written document that identifies defines and describes a job in terms of its duties responsibilities working conditions and specifications
Job specifications Worker characteristics needed to perform a job successfully
Core workers Full time employees
Contingent workers Workers hired to deal c temporary increases in an organizations workload or to do work that is not part of its core set of capabilities
Job sharing Work arrangement in which two or more employees divide a job responsibility hours and benefits
Flexible work time Arrangement that gives employees control over the starting and ending time of their work
Core time Time when all employees are expected at work part of flex arrangement
Flextime time which employees can choose not to be at work
Telecommuting Arrangement that allows employees to work in their homes
Work life balance Balance between work and personal lifr
HRIS System used to collect record store retrieve data concerning HR
Fair employment Goal of eeoc legislation and regulation: situation in which employment decisions are nit affected by illegal discrimination
Equal pay act 1963 Law requires same pay for men and women doing same job in organizatiom
Title vii Section on civil rights act of 1964 that applies to employment decisions, mandates that employment decisions not be based in on race color religion sex national origin
Protected class group of people who suffered discrimination in the past and who are given special protection by the judicial system
Discrimination Making of distinctions of people
Disparate treatment Discrimination that occurs when individuals are treated differently because of their membership in a protected class
Adverse impact Discrimination that occurs when the equal application of an employment standard has an unequal effect on one or more protected class also called DISPARATE IMPACT
Four-fifths rule Eeoc provision for establishing a prima facile case that an hr practice us discriminatory and has an adverse impact- practice has impact if hiring rate if protected class is less than four-fifths of majority group
Bona fie occupational qualification BFOQ Characteristic that must be present in all employees for a particular job
Quid pro quo sexual harassment Occurs when sexual activity is required in return for getting or keeping a job
Hostile work environment Harassment that occurs when behavior of anyone in the work setting is sexual in nature and is offensive and undesirable
Quotas Emploer adjustments of hiring decisions to ensure that a certain number of people from a certain protected class are hired
Punitive damages Fines awarded to a plaintiff in order to punish the defendant
Compensatory damages Awarded to a plaintiff to compensate for the financial or psychological harm to them
Executive order Presidential directive that has the force if the law - policy w which all federal agencies doing businesses c federal govt must comply
Age discrimination in employment act ADEA law prohibits discrimination of people 40 or older
ADA Law forbidding employment discrimination against people c disabilities who can perform the essential functions if the job c or w/o reasonable accommodation
Individual c disabilities Person who have physical or mental impairment that substantially affects one ir mire major life activities
Essential functions Job duties that each person in a certain postion must do or must be able to do to be an effective employee
Reasonable accommomdation Action taken to accommodate the known disabilities of applicants or employees so that the disabiled employee can enjoy equal employment opportunity
EEOC Federal agency responsible for enforcing the EEO LAWS
Conciliation Attemot to reach settlement between employer and an employee or applicant in an EEO case
Office of federal contract compliance OFCCP Federal agency responsible for monitoring and enforcing the laws and executive orders that apply to the federal govt and its contractors
Reverse Discrimination Discrimination against a non protected class member resulting from attempts to recruit and hire members of protected class
diversity human characteristics that make people different from one another
management of diversity set of activites involved in integrating nontraditional employee into the workforce and using their diversity to the companys competitive advantage
universal concept of management the management concept holding that all management practices should be standardized
cultural relativity concept of mgt the mgt concept holding that mgt practices should be molded to the different sets of values, beliefs, attitudes, and behaviors exhibited by a diverse workforce
glass ceiling the intangible barrier in an organization that prevents female and minority employees from rising to positions above a certain level
diversity training programs programs that provide diversity awareness training and educate employees on specific cultural and sex differences and how to respond to these in the workplace
support group a group established by an employer to provide a nurturing climate for employees who would otherwise feel isolated
extended leave a benefit that allows employees to take a long-term leave from the office, while retaining benefits and the guarantee of a comparable job on return
senior mentoring program a support program in which senior managers identify promising women and minority employees and plan an important role in nurturing their career
apprenticeship a program in which promising prospective employees are groomed before they are actually hired on a permanent basis
diversity audit a review of the effectiveness of an organizations diversity mgt program
cultural determinism the idea that one can successfully infer an individuals motivations, interests, values and behavioral traits based on that individuals group memberships
labor supply the availability of workers with the required skills to meet the firms labor demand
labor demand how many workers the organization will need in the future
human resource planning HRP the process an organization uses to ensure that it has the right amount and the right kind of people to deliver a particular level of output or services in the future
recruitment the process of generating a pool of qualified candidates for a particular job; the first step in the hiring process
selection the process of making a hire or or hire decision regarding each applicant for a job; the second step in the hiring process
socialization the process of orienting new employees to the organization and the unit in which they will be working; the third step in the hiring process
reliability consistency of measurement, usually across time but also across judges
validity the extent to which the technique measures the intended knowledge, skill or ability. In the selection context, it is the extent to which scores on a test or interview correspond to actual job performance
concurrent validity extent of correlation between selection and performance scores, when measured at the same time
predictive validity extent to which selection scores correlate with performance scores, when performance is measured later in time
structured interview job interview based on a thorough job analysis, applying job-related questions with predetermined answers consistently across all interviews for a job
assessment center a set of simulated tasks or exercises that candidates (usually managerial) are asked to perform
employee separation the termination of an employee's membership in an organization
turnover rate the rate of employee separations in an organization
exit interview an employee's final interview following separation. the purpose of the interview is to find out the reasons why the employee is leaving if voluntary or to provide counsel/assistance for a new job
outplacement assistance a program in which companies help their departing employees find jobs more rapidly by providing them with training in job-search skills
voluntary separation a separation that occurs when an employee decides, for personal or professional reasons, to end the relationship with the employer
involuntary separation a separation that occurs when an employer decides to terminate its relationship with an employee due to economic or poor fit reasons
downsizing a company strategy to reduce the scale/size and scope of its business in order to improve the companys financial performance
rightsizing the process of reorganizing a company's employees to improve their efficiency
attrition an employment policy designed to reduce the companys workforce by not refilling job vacancies that are created by turnover
hiring freeze an employment policy designed to reduce the company's workforce by not hiring any new employees into the company
worker adjustment and retraining notification act WARN a federal law requiring US employers with 100 or more employees to give 60 days advance notice to employees who will be laid off as a result of a plant closing or a mass separation of 50 or more workers
performance appraisal the identificaiton, measurement, and mgt of human performance in organization
dimension an aspect of performance that determines effective job performance
dimension an aspect of performance that determines effective job performance
competencies charactertistics associated with successful performance
competency model set of competencies associated with a ajob
relative judgment an appraisal format that asks supervisors to compare an emmployees performance to the performance of other employees doing the same job
relative judgment an appraisal format that asks supervisors to compare an emmployees performance to the performance of other employees doing the same job
absolute judgment an appraisal that asks supervisors to make judgments about an employees performance based soley on performance standards
trait appraisal instrument an appraisal tool that asks a supervisor to make judgments about worker characteristics that tend to be consistent and enduring
behavioral appraisal instructment an appraisl tool that asks managers to assess a workers behavior
outcome appraisal instrument an appraisal toll that ask managers to assess the results achieved by workers
management by objectives MBO a goal-directed approach to performance appraisal in which workers and their supervisors set goals together for the upcoming evaluation period
self-review a performance appraisal system in which workers rate themselves
peer review a performance appraisal system in which workers at the same level in the organization rate one another
subordinate review a performance system in which workers review their supervisor
360 feedback the combination of peer, subordinate, and self-review
rater error an error in performance appraisals that reflects consistent biases on the part of the rater
comparability in performance ratings, the degree to which the performance ratings given by various supervisors in an organization are based on similar standards
frame of reference (FOR) traininga a type of training that presents supervisors with fictitious examples of worker performance-writing or video, asks the supervisor to evaluate the workers in examples then tells what ratings should have been
situational factors or system factors a wide array of organizational characteristics that can positively or negatively influence performance
training the process of providing employees with specific skills or helping them correct deficiences in their performance
training the process of providing employees with specific skills or helping them correct deficiences in their performance
development an effort to provide employees with the abilities the organization will need in the future
simulation a device or situation that replicates job demands at an off-the-job site
virtual reality the use of a number of technologies to replicate the entire real-life working environment in real time
virtual reality the use of a number of technologies to replicate the entire real-life working environment in real time
job aids external sources of information, such as pamphlets and reference guides, that workers can access quickly when they need help in making a decision or performing a specific task
virtual reality VR the use of a number of technologies to replicate the entire real-life working environment in real time
cross - functional training training employees to perform operations in areas other than their assigned jobs
peer trainers high-performing workers who double as internal on the job trainers
brainstorming a creativity training technique in which participates are given the opportunity to generate ideas openly, without fear of judgment
literacy the mastery of skills (writing, reading, math) and their uses in problem solving
orientation the process of informing new employees about what is expected of them in the job and helping them cope c the stresses of transition
realistic job preview RJP realistic information about the demands of the job, the organizations expectations of the job holder, and the work environment
career development an ongoing formalized effort that focuses on developing enriched and more capable workers
dual career couple a couple whose members both have occupational responsibilites and career issues at stake
promotability forecast a career development activity in which managers make decisions regarding the advancement potential in subordinates
succession planning a career development activity that focuses on preparing people to fill executive positions
job-posting system a system in which an org announces job openings to all employees on a bulletin board, in newsletter, phone or computer system
career path a chart showing the possible directions and career opportunities available in the org, it presents in steps in a possible career and plausible timetable for accomplishing them
career resource center a collection of career development materials such as workbooks, tapes and text
mentoring a developmentally oriented relationship between senior and junior colleauges or peers involving advising, role model, sharing contacts and giving support
mentoring a developmentally oriented relationship between senior and junior colleauges or peers involving advising, role model, sharing contacts and giving support
total compensation the package of quantifible rewards an employee receives for their labor. 3 components: base comp, pay incentives,and indirect comp/benefits
base compensation fixed pay an employee receives on a regular basis, either in form of salary or as an hourly wage
base compensation fixed pay an employee receives on a regular basis, either in form of salary or as an hourly wage
pay incentive a program designed to reward employees for good performance
internal equity the perceived fairness of the pay structure within a firm
external equity the perceived fairness in pay relative to what other employers are paying for the same type of labor
individual equity the perceived fairness of individual pay decisions
knowledge-based pay or skilled based pay a pay system in which employees are paid on the basis of the jobs they can do or talents they have that can be successfully applied to tasks and situations
egalitarian pay system a pay plan in which most employees are part of the same compensation system
elitist pay system a pay plan in which different compensation systems are established for employees or groups at different organizational levels
job evaluation the process of evaluating the relative value or contribution of different jobs to an organization
compensable factors work-related criteria that an organization considers most important in assessing the relative value of different jobs
job hierachy a listing of jobs in order of their importance to the organization, from highest to lowest
benchmark or key job a job similar or comparable in content across firms
pay policy a firm's decision to pay above, below, or at the market rate for its jobs
job banding the practice of replacing narrowly defined job descriptions with broader categories (bands) of related jobs
Fair Labor Standards act FLSA the fundamental comp law in US. requires employers to record earnings/hrs worked by all covered employees to info to DOL. 2 types Exempt and Non-Exempt
exempt employee an employee who is not covered by the provisions of the FLSA. prof, admin, exec and outside sales jobs
nonexempt employee an employee who is covered by the provisions of FLSA
comparable worth a pay concept or doctrine that calls comparable pay for jobs that require comparable skills, effort and responsiblity, same working conditions, even if job content is different
comparable worth a pay concept or doctrine that calls comparable pay for jobs that require comparable skills, effort and responsiblity, same working conditions, even if job content is different
individual equity the perceived fairness of individual pay decision
Internal Revenue Code IRC code of tax laws that affects how much of their earnings employees can keep and how benefits are treated for tax purposes
pay for performance system of incentive system system that rewards employees on assumptions: 1. individual employees or team differ in how much they contribute to the firm 2. firms overall performance 3. attract, retain, motivate high performers
piece-rate system compensation system in which employees are paid per unit produced
merit pay an increase in base pay, normally given once a year
bonus program or lump-sum payment financial incentive that is given on a one-time basis and does not raise the employees base pay permanently
award one-time reward usually given in the form of a tangible prize
expectancy theory theory of behavior holding that people tend to do those things that are rewarded
gainsharing plantwide pay for performance plan in which a portion of the company's cost savings is returned to workers, usually in the form of lump-sum bonus
profit sharing corporatewide pay for performance plan that uses a formula to allocate profits. usually used to fund retirement plans
employee stock ownership plan ESOP corporatewide plan that rewards employees c company stock either as outright grant or at a favorable price may be below market value
perquisites PERKS noncash incentives given to a firm's executives
contribution payments made for benefits coverage. Contributions for specific benefit may come from employer, employee or both
coinsurance payments made to cover health care expenses, that are split between the employers insurance company and the insured employee
copayment small payment made by the employee for each office visit to a physician under the health plan
deductible annual out of pocket expenditure that an insurance policyholder must make before the insurance will reimburse
flexible or cafeteria plan benefits program that allows employees to select the benefits they need most from a menu of choices
benefits mix the complete package of benefits that a company offers its employees
social security government program that provides income for retires, the disabled and survivors of deceased workers and health care for the aged through MCR
Medicare part of SS program that provides health insurance coverage for people aged 65 and over
workers compensation legally required benefit that provides medical care, income continuation, and rehabe expenses for people who sustain job-related injuries or illness. Provides survivors of an employee whose death is job-related
unemployment insurance program establised by the SS Act of 1935 to provide temporary income for people during periods of involuntary unemployment
supplemental benefits (SUB) benefits given by a company to laid-off employees over and above unemployed benefits
FMLA 1993 Federal law that requires employers provide up to 12 wks of unpaid leave for adoption, child, illneess,for parent, sibling, child or spouse
consolidated omnibus budget reconcilation COBRA 1985 legislation that give employees the right to continue their health insurance for 18-36 months after termination
Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act HIPAA Federal law that protects an employees ability to transfer between health ins plans without a gap in coverage due to preexisting conditions
preexisting conditions medical condition treated while an employee was covered under a formers health plan and requires tx under a new employers plan
Patient and Affordable Care Act (PACA) federal law passed in 2010 that guarantees that affordable health care is available in US
premium money paid to an insurance company for coverage
health maintenance org (HMO) health care plan that provides comprehensive medical services for employees and families at a flat annual fee
preferred provider org PPO health care plan in which employer or ins co establishes a network of providers for broad services for a flat fee per participant. gives lower fee, higher volume to providers
health savings account HSA qualified health plan with a High Deductible - pretax dollars and monies accumulate
High deductible health plan HDHP high ded plan requires employees pay for the first few thousand before the ins co pays
employee retirement income security act ERISA federal law started in 1974 to protect employees retirement benefits from management
vesting guarantee that accrued benefits will be given to retirement plan participants when they retire or leave the employer
portable benefits employee benefits, usually retirement funds, that stay with the employee as they move from one company to another
pension benefit guaranty corp (PBGC) govt agency that provides plan termination insurance to employers with defined benefit retirement programs
defined benefit plan or PENSION retirement plan that promises to pay a fixed dollar amount to retirees based on formula that avgs last 3-5 yrs of employee income
defined contribution plan plan in which employer promises to contribute a specific amount into participants funds. value depends on success of plans investments