Human Resources Flashcards


Flashcards from the Human Resources Body of Knowledge
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Resource summary

Question Answer
absenteeism Not coming to work. Not coming to work because of illness or personal problems. Many companies calculate the rate of absenteeism of their employees, which is the average number of days they do not come to work.
accountability Responsibility. An obligation to accept responsibility for one's action.
accrual A method of accounting. An accounting method that recognizes a company's financial performance by recording income and expenses at the time a transaction occurs, rather than when a payment is received or an invoice is paid.
acquiring company A company that buys another company. The business or organization that is buying another business.
acquisition An acquired company. A process in which one organization buys another organization.
active listening Checking for understanding. A communication method that a listener uses to interpret and evaluate information from a speaker.
ADA Americans with Disabilities Act. A U.S. law that prevents an organization or person from discriminating against an employee because of physical or mental disabilities.
ADDIE Model A training design technique. A process for designing training programs that has five steps: analysis, design, development, implementation, and evaluation.
ad hoc Not planned, for a specific case. A solution to a specific problem that is not planned, or cannot be used in other situations.
ADR Alternative dispute resolution. A method for resolving a disagreement without going through formal legal procedures.
advocacy Support, encouragement. Supporting an idea or cause, influencing outcomes.
affirmative action A processed designed to treat all applicants and employees equally. An activity designed to correct previous inequality that may have existed for certain groups or classes of people.
align Line up, make parallel. To place in a line or arrange in a similar way.
alliance Agreement, cooperation. A partnership between organizations that help both sides.
allowance Amount of money. Money for a specific purpose.
Angoff method An exam scoring process. A way to set the standard score for passing a test.
appeal A request to a higher authority. To challenge an official decision (for example, in court).
appraisals Evaluations. Assessments of the value or performance of something (for example, job appraisals)
apprentice A person learning a skill, trade, or profession. A person learning a trade or skill from a qualified person for a specific length of time.
arbitration Resolving a dispute. The process of coming to an agreement about something without using a judge or court.
assessment center A method of selecting personnel. A system of tests and interviews that evaluate employee performance and help companies select the right people for job positions.
assignee Expatriate, transferee. A person who is on (or will go on) an international work assignment.
assignment Job or position. A job, usually in a new location.
assimilation A process of integration. The process of becoming a member of a team, organization, or culture.
asynchronous learning An online teaching method. A teaching method where the students and teachers are online at different times.
ATS Applicant tracking system. Computer software that helps an organization recruit employees.
attrition Reduction, decrease in numbers of employees. The number of employees who leave the organization for any reason: resignation, termination, end of agreement, retirement, sickness, or death.
authority Expert or person in control. Someone with extensive knowledge of a specific subject; a person in a superior position.
background check Process of confirming a job candidate's personal and public information. Gathering data to determine the accuracy of a candidate's experience and records during employment screening (for example, verifying personal data, checking credentials, determining any criminal activity)
balanced scorecard An analysis technique. A method or tool that organizations use to measure the success of their strategies by looking at both financial and nonfinancial areas.
balance-sheet approach A model for international compensation. A way to set the salary and living allowances for employees on international assignments.
base salary A fixed amount of money paid for work performed. Compensation that does not include benefits, bonuses, or commissions.
behavioral interview Job interview method based on past work behavior. Interview process to predict future performance based on how the candidate acted in past work situations.
benchmarks Measures or markers. A basis for judging or measuring something else.
beneficiary Receiver of benefits. A person who is eligible to gain benefits under a will, insurance policy, retirement plan, or other contract.
benefit programs Compensation in addition to wages. Worker's entitlements in addition to base salary (for example, health insurance, life insurance, disability pay, retirement pension, and so on).
best practices Techniques or activities that give the best results. The methods, processes, or activities that have proven to produce outstanding results for organizations' opportunites.
biodata Information about a person. A shortened term for "biological data": information about a person's education, background, and work history.
blackout period Temporary denial of access. A brief period in which employees cannot access or change things about their retirement or investment plans.
blended learning A mix of different types of learning. A learning method that combines face-to-face teaching with online learning.
brain drain Loss of skilled workers. When smart and talented people leave their own country for better oportunities.
brainstorming A process for producing new ideas and solutions. A method in which individuals or groups spontaneously find solutions to a problem.
breakdown analysis Listing things according to categories. Analyzing and classifying, such as an analysis of revenue sources or a report on attrition numbers.
briefings Instructions or summary. Discussions that provide detailed information.
brownfield operation Previously used land. Reuse of land previously used for industry or manufacturing.
buy-in Obtaining support. Acquiring backing or sponsorship from a person or group.
career development Progress in a job or profession. An employee's progress through each stage of his or her career.
career ladder promotion A structured job advancement. Job advancement through a series of defined positions, from lower level to higher level.
career management Planning and controlling the professional development of an employee. Preparing, implementing, and monitoring the career path of an employee, with a focus on the goals and needs of the organization.
career planning Managing professional goals. Taking steps to improve professional skills and create new opportunities.
career plateau No possibility for advancing in a career. Inability of an employee to advance furher in the company due to mediocre performance or lack of opportunites.
cascading goals Goals that flow from the top to the bottom of an organization. Goals that an organization sets at a high level, which flow down as goals for the departments, and then become goals for specific people.
cause-and-effect diagram A tool used to examine quality factors. A visual tool to organize factors that contribute to certain outcomes; also called a fishbone diagram.
Caux principles Ethical guidelines for international organizations. A set of ethical principles developed for global organizations by the Caux Round Table, a group of global business leaders from around the world.
center of excellence An area where high standards produce the best results. A team or division that uses best practices within a specific area to achieve business goals.
central tendency Average value of a data set. A measure of the middle of a statistical distribution of data.
certification A procedure to grant an official designation. Confirmation of specific achievements or characteristics given by authority , usually by issuing a certificate or diploma after a test.
chain of command Order of authority. The sequence of power in an organization, from the top to the next levels of authority.
change agent Something or someone that causes change. A person or department that deliberately causes change within an organization.
cloud computing A type of computing that uses groups of servers and resources, made available on the Internet. Using a network of remote servers hosted on the Internet to access, manage, and process data, rather than using a local server.
coaching Guiding, giving information, or training. A method of developing specific skills in which a coach gives information and objective feedback to a person or group.
code of conduct A set of principles and behavioral expectations. A written description of the principles, behaviors, and responsibilities that an organization expects of its employees.
codetermination A management structure involving employees. An organizational structure in which employees share responsibility for the operation of a company
cognitive ability Intelligence. Thinking skills and mental abilities
commuter assignment A type of expatriate position requiring frequent travel between two countries. An international job that requires an employee to live in one country and work in another country, and travel regularly between them (for example, an expatriate who lives in Bahrain and works in Saudi Arabia)
company culuture The beliefs and behaviors of an organization. The values, language, rules, procedures, expectations, and processes that affect how employees of an organization think, act, and view the world.
compa-ratio Math formula for comparing salaries. A number comparing a person's salary to other salaries for the same job; the comparison ratio is calculated by taking a person's salary and comparing it to the midpoint of other salaries (if a person earns $45k per year and the salary midpoint is $50 k per year, the compa-ratio is 45000/50000 = 90%
compensation Salary and benefits. Everything that an employee receives for working, including pay and nonmonetary benefits.
compentencies The abilities needed to do well in a specific job. The skills, behaviors, and knowledge that are needed to succeed in a specific job.
competency-based pay Salary based on demonstrated skills and knowledge. Pay based on the skills and knowledge that make an employee valuable to an organization.
competency-model A description of the skills needed for a specific job. A list of behaviors, skills, and knowledge needed to do well in a specific job.
compliance Obedience, conforming. Following established laws, guidelines, or rules.
conflict resolution Process of negotiation, arbitration. A method of negotiating agreements or solving problems.
consolidation Process of combining, bringing together. Combining seperate companies, functional areas, or product lines; in finance, combining the assets, equity, liabilities, and operating accounts of a company with those of it's subsidiaries.
contingent worker Part-time or temporary employee. A person who is hired part-time to work under a contractor for a fixed period of time.
contract manufacturing Producing private label goods. A production method in which one company hires another company to manufacture parts or goods under its label and according to its specifications.
core competency Specific expertise. The skills or knowledge that an organization or employee needs to do work.
corporate citizenship Responsibility to the employees and to the community. A practice in which organizations take steps to improve their employees' lives and the communities in which they operate.
corporate culture The beliefs and behaviors of an organization. The values, language, rules, procedures, expectations, and processes that affect how employees of an organization think, act, and view the world.
corporate social responsibilty An organization's commitment to improving the community and environment.
co-sourcing Using both internal and external resources to perform a service. A business practice in which the employees of a company work with an outside organization to perform a service.
cost-benefit analysis (CBA) A process of measuring business decisions. A financial review of various options to determine if the benefits are greater than the costs.
cost-of-living adjustments (COLA) Pay change due to economic conditions. An increase or decrease in pay based on changes in economic conditions in a geographic location or country.
cost per hire Recruitment measuring tool. The amount of money needed to recruit a new employee, which includes advertising, recruiting fees, referral fees, travel expenses, and relocation costs.
cost sharing Expenses for a project being divided among those involved. Method of saving money by dividing the costs of a program, project, or business operation.
Credentials Certified documents, diplomas. Proof of a person's earned authority, status, or rights, usually in writing (for example, a univeristy diploma, a digital certification badge, or other proof of passing a professional exam).
criterion A standard or rule. A test, standard, or rule on which something is judged or measured.
cross-border Country to country. Taking place across the geographic boundaries of two or more countries (for example, cross-border trade).
cross-cultural Comparing or interacting with two or more groups of people. Involving two or more cultures (such as national, regional, or professional cultures).
cross-training Learning new skills beyond one's current job responsibilities. Teaching employees the skills and responsibilities of other positions in the company to increase their effectiveness and to provide greater staffing flexibility in the organization.
cultural coaching Guidance to help a person interact to achvieve greater success with other cultures. Giving support and suggestions to help employees achieve greater success with different cultures.
cultural intelligence Measure of competence in culturally diverse situations. A person's ability to function in mulitcultural situations and to interact appropriately with people from different backgrounds.
danger premium Additional pay for high-risk work. Extra pay that employees receive for working in dangerous jobs or places (for example, environments that are hazardous or politically unstable)
days to fill The time it takes to hire someone. The average number of days it takes to hire someone for an open job position.
dedicated HR Person committed to human resources in an organization. A human resources position that works only on HR responsibilities within an organization.
deductive Reasoning from the general to the specific. A method of reasoning that forms a conclusion from general information; the opposite of inductive reasoning, where a conclusion is fromed from particular facts.
deferred compensation plan An employee pension program. A pension program that allows an employee to contribute a portion of income over time to be paid as a lump sum at retirement when the employee's income tax rate will probably be lower.
defined benefit plan A retirement plan with predetermined payments. A retirement plan that tells participants exactly how much money (lump sum or regular payments) they will receive on a specific later date (usually the day they retire).
Delphi technique A forecasting technique. A method of forecasting where a group of experts provides individual opinions, which are later shared on order to reach a more objective decision.
demographics Data, information about people. Statistics about groups of people that give information such as age, gender, income, and ethnic background.
development Event, happening, occurrence. Something that happens or has happened, or the act of making or improving something.
Didactic Instructive, teaching. Intending to teach or demonstrate.
distance learning Remote teaching method. A method of education that uses TV, audiotapes or videotapes, computers, and the internet, instead of traditional classroom teaching where students are physically present with their teacher.
distributed training A method of instruction over time and distance. A method of training that allows instructors, students, and content to be located in different places. This type of training can be used together with a traditional classroom, or it can be used to create virtual classrooms.
Diversity Composed of different elements. A combination of various types of people working together, often with differences in culture, race, generation, gender, or religion.
divestiture The sale of a company's assets. Property that an organization sells or gives to another organization (for example, a company's sale of a business unit).
document retention Maintaining important employee records. Managing employee data and records as required by the organization or rule or law.
downsizing Reduction in the number of employees. A decrease in a company's workforce to create efficiency and profitability.
downward communication Flow of information from superiors to subordinates. Information that is conveyed by upper management to lower-level employees in the organization.
drive Guide, steer. To push or move forward a plan or project.
due dilligence An investigation. The gathering and analysis of important information related to a business acquisition or merger, such as assets and liabilities, contracts, and benefit plans.
due process The way a government enforces laws. In the U.S. the way a government enforces its laws to protect its citizens (for example, guaranteeing a person a fair trial).
economic valuation Value given to nonfinancial factors. Giving monetary value to environmental factors (for example, the quality of air and water, which are not normally part of the financial valuation.)
e-learning Online training or education. A method of education where students attend classes on a computer or on the internet.
eligible Qualified. To be qualified to participate in a program or apply for a job.
employeee assistance program Services and counseling that employees receive to help them solve problems that could affect their work productivity. Examples include counseling for drug or alcohol problems or family issues.
employee benefits Compensation in addition to salary. Payments or allowances that organizations give to their employees (for example, medical insurance, Social Security taxes, pension contributions, education reimbursement, and car of clothing allowances).
employee engagement Level of satisfaction with work. A measurement of employees' involvement, satisfaction, happiness, and loyalty with their employment (how hard they work and how long they stay with their organization).
employee handbook A reference document for workers in an organization. A manual that contains information about an organization's policies, procedures, and benefits.
employee relations Interaction between employees and the organization. Interaction between employees and an organization (for example, communications, conflict resolution, compliance with legal regulations, career development, and performance measurements)
employee retention Keeping employees. Methods of motivating employees to stay with the organization and making sure employees are satisfied and rewarded.
employee self-service A method allowing employees to access and update data. A trend in human resources management that allows employees to handle many job-related tasks (such as updates to their personnel data) using technology.
employee turnover The ratio of unfilled positions. The % of a company's employees that must be replaced at any time.
employer branding How a company presents itself to the public. The image an organization presents to its employees, stakeholders, and customers.
employer of choice An organization highly valued by employees. An organization that people want to work for because it attracts, motivates, and keeps good employees.
employer paid benefits Something extra that employees receive in addition to salary. Benefits that an organization gives its employees in addition to salary (for example, medical insurance, payments to retirement funds, and allowances for cars or clothing).
employment branding Changing how others perceive an organization. Process of turning an organization into an employer of choice.
empowerment Authorized to make decisions. The ability for employees to manage their work, share information, and make decisions without close supervision.
environmental responsibilty Concern and care for the environment. The management of products and processes that show concern for health, safety, and the environment.
environmental scanning Gathering internal and external informaion for strategic purposes. Acquiring and using information about internal and external business environments that influence an organization's stratgey (for example, determining how to respond to a talent shortage).
equal employment opportunity EEO. U.S. laws that guarantee equal treatment and respect for all employees.
equity compensation A type of payment that gives employees an ownership interest in a company. Noncash payment that represents an ownership interest in a company (for example, stock options and restricted stock).
equity partnership Business arrangement with financial investors. An agreement for a persom or an organization to own part of a company by providing start-up funds to the new business.
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