Liver Function and Diseases of the Liver

Flashcards by carlymerlo, updated more than 1 year ago
Created by carlymerlo over 7 years ago


3rd Herbal Therapeutics Flashcards on Liver Function and Diseases of the Liver, created by carlymerlo on 08/12/2013.

Resource summary

Question Answer
List the functions of the liver detoxifies alcohol, caffeine, drugs, and other toxins Stores and processes nutrients following absorption Converts CHO, Pr, fats (stored for later use) Stores A, D, K, B12, folate, Ca, Fe Metabolises Vit D Metabolises proteins and therefore synthesises amino acids Regulates hormones (conjugates hormones eg: Oestrogen thereby balances female sex hormones) Regulates lipids (regulates cholesterol) Manufactures bile and assits with fat emulsification Assists with blood glucose control (via synthesis and storage of glycogen then binds to glucose and released as energy as needed
List the Sx of liver dysfunction General malaise Fatigue < morning after eating Anorexia Nausea and vomiting Poor tolerance to fatty foods and alcohol Bloating and abdominal distension Chronic constipation Light coloured clay stools, greasy, whitish, floating and difficult to flush Headaches and migraines Poor concentration and memory Depression, anxiety, mood swings, irritability Itch skin and rashes Oily or dry skin Yellow skin Allergies and intolerances Chemical sensitivities Sensitive to smells and light Muschle pain and weakness weight loss or gain or difficult weight loss Jaundice Poor cholesterol metabolism Hormonal disturbances Right shoulder pain URQ pain Fatty liver
What are some factors which contribute to liver load? Nutrient insufficiencies Leaky gut / intestinal wall hypermeability Increased antigen and endotoxin load Lipopolysacchharides from the cell walls of dead bacteria can promote inflammatory cytokines and may damage liver cells Inflammation which reduces the activity of phase 2 enzymes
What are external factors that can cause liver disorders? Alcohol Caffeine Fatty foods Chemicals from commercially grown foods Hormone disruption Water Biological toxins Heavy metals Paramaceutical drugs Inhaled toxins topical applications Environmental pollutants Stress Obesity Weight loss Decrease in bile flow Infections Metabolic disorders
What are the three detoxification pathways for the liver? What is number 1? 1. Filtering the blood to remove large toxins eg: bacteria, endotoxins, antigen antibody complexes a healthy liver clears about 100% of bacteria and toxins from blood before it enters the circulation
What is the second way the liver detoxifies? Enzymatic breakdown of toxins Chemical compounds, drugs, hormones, pesticides, enterotoxins Phase 1 and 2 reactions
What is the 3rd detoxification pathway? Synthesizing and secreting bile -Excreation of fat souble toxins and cholesterol If bile is excreations are inhibited the toxins stay in the liver for longer subjecting it to damage
List the cholagogues and choleretics we can use to detoxify the liver? Andrographis paniculata - andrographis Berberis vulgaris - barberry Berberis Aquifolium - Oregan grape Hydrastis canadensis - Golden seal Chelidonium majus - calendine Chionanthus virginicus - White fringe tree curcuma longa - turmeric Cynara scolymus - globe artichoke Iris versicolour - Blue flag Mentha piperita - peppermint Peumus boldo - boldo Tarax rad - Dandelion root
Hepatoprotective herbs? Andrographis paniculata - andrographis Bupleurum falcatum - Bupleurum Curcuma longa - turmeric Cynara scolymus - globe artichoke Rosmarinus officinalis - rosemary Schisandra chinensis - schisandra Silybum marianum - milk thistle
Hepato (tropho) restoriatives Cynara scolymus - globe artichoke Silybum marianum - Milk thistle
Hepatic detoxifier Rosmarinus officinalis - rosemary Schisandra chinensis - schisandra Hypericum perforatum - St johns wort
Antioxidant herbs Camellia sinensis - Green tea Curcuma longa - turmeric Ginko biloba Silybum marianum - milk thistle Rosmarinus officinalis - rosemary Schisandra chinensis - schisandra Vitis vinifera - grape seed
What are the aims for detoxification? 1. decrease toxic load 2. Repair the gut lining 3. Ensure regular bowel movements 4. Support and promote detoxification processes
How do you support the detoxification process? 1. ensure the liver is functioning optimally by using hepatoprotectives, hepatorestoratives, hepatic detoxifiers 2. Ensure adequate bile flow by suing cholagogues adn choleretics 3. Antioxidants to mop up FRs produced by Phase 1 4. support phase 2 by using hepatic detoxifiers and nutrients 5. Consider also the kidney function and water intake
What herbs can we use to increase phase 1? 1. Hypericum - st johns wort 2. Allium sativum - garlic 3. Schisandra 4. Rosemary - 5. Silybum mariniaum - Milk thistle
What herbs do we use to increase phase 2? Allium sativum - garlic Humulus lupulus - hops Tarax rad - Dandelion
What herbs do we use to increase phase 2? Schinadra Rosemary Humulus lupulus - hops Tarax rad - dandelion root Curcumin - Turmeric
How are toxic substances broken down in the liver? They are broken down by (metabolised) by enzyme pathways inside the liver cells
Are many of the toxins that enter the body fat soluble or water soluble? Fat soluble
Why are fat soluble toxins difficult for the body to excrete? They are difficult to excrete because they have a high affinity for fat tissues and cell membranes, which are made up of mostly fatty substances. In these fatty parts of the body, toxins may be stored for years, being released during times of exercise, stress or fasting.
What are some symptoms that can occur when these toxins are released? Headaches Poor memory Stomach pain nausesa fatigue dizziness palpitations Metabolic poisoning
how does the liver detoxify? There are two detoxification pathways inside the liver cells, which are called the phase 1 and phase 2 detoxification pathways
What are toxins? Metabolic end products micro organisms contamination /pollutants insecticides pesticides food additives drugs alohol
Phase one detoxificaiton consits of... oxidation reduction and hydrolysis
What is the name of the enzyme which catalyses phase 1? Cytochrome P450 or MFO (mixed function oxidase)
Where do these enzymes live? on the membrane system of the liver cells (hepatocytes)
When are P450 enzymes synthesised? Upon exposure to specific chemicals
What does phase 1 do basically? Converts toxic chemicals into less harmful chemicals
What happens during this process? oxidised reduction or hydrolysis of toxins produces free radicals
Why are free radicals bad? They can damage cells
What do vitamin C and E do to free radicals? They are antioxidants which reduce the damage caused by free radicals. If antioxidants are lacking and toxin exposure is high, toxin chemicals become far more dangerous.
What happens if the P450 enzyme system becomes over reactive? This will result in high levels of damaging free radicals being produced
What happens if these free radicals are not metabolised by the phase 2 conjugation process? They may cause damage to proteins, RNA, and DNA within the cells
what are substances which can cause overactivity or induction of the P450 enzymes? Caffeine Alcohol Saturated fats Pesticides Paint fumes Sulphonamides exhaust fumes Barbiturates
What are cofactors needed for phase 1 detoxification? NADH Riboflavin Niacin Magnesium Iron Certain indoles from cruciferous veggies
What are substances that inhinbit cytochrome P450 Many substances inhibit P450 cytochrome can cause substantial problems as it makes toxins potentially more damaging because they remain in the body longer before detoxification
What does grape fruit do ? Decreases the rate of elimination of drugs from the blood and it has been found to substantially alter their clinical activity and toxicity. Eight ounces of grapefruit juice contains enough of the flavonoid naringenin to decrease cytochrome P450 activity by 30%
What does curcumin do? Curcumin is a compound that gives turmeric is yellow colour. It inhibits phase 1 while stimulating phase II. This can prevent certain cancers. It lowers the activation of carinogens while increasing the detoxification of those that are activated.
What happens to phase I as we age? The activity of phase I decreases as we age. Aging also decreases blood flow to the liver.
What happens in Phase II? This is called the conjugation pathway, whereby the liver cells add another substance (cysteine, glycine or sulphur) to a toxic chemical or drug and render it harmless. This makes the toxin or drug water soluble so it can be excreted from the body via watery fluids such as bile or urine
What are the major Phase II pathways? Glutathione Sulphate Glycine Glucuronide conjugations Through conjugation the liver is able to turn drugs, hormones, and varous toxins into water soluble exretions.
What do sulphur containing foods and amino acids do to the phase II? For efficient phase II detoxification, the liver cells require sulphur containing amino acids such as taurine and cystein. The nutrients glycine, glutamine, choline and inositol are also required for efficinet phase II detox.
What are some sulphur containing foods? Eggs, cruciferous vegetables (broccoli, cabbage, brussels sprouts, cauliflower, raw garlic , onions, leeks, shallots are all good sources of natural sulphur compounds to enhance phase II. They can be considered to have a cleansing action.
There are two enxyme systems which work in phase II what are these? GT and GSH-T
What is GT Gultathione S transferase is the most powerful internal antioxidant and liver protector. It can be depleated by large amounts of toxins and drugs passing through the liver, as well as starvation or fasting.
What are the required nutrients needed for phase II? Calcium d glucarate Amino acids: L-glutamine L - Lysine Glycine L-carnitine Taurine Cruciferous vegetables MSM N-acetyl cysteine
How does toxic overload occur? If the phase one and two detoxification pathways become overloaded, there will be a build up of toxins in the body. Many of these toxins are fat soluble and incorporated themselves into fatty parts of the body where they may stay for years. The brain and the endocrine (hormonal ) glands are fatty organs, and are common sties for fat souble toxins to accumualte. This may result in symptoms of brain dysfunction and hormonal imbalances, such as infertility, breast pain, menstrual disturbances, adrenal gland exhaustion and early menopause. Many of these chemicals are carcinogenic and may cause cancer
Bitter herbs bitter herbs are the corner stone of herbal medicine. A range of physiological responses occur following stimulation of the bitter receptors of the tongue. The bitter taste stimulates the specific bitter taste buds at the back of the tongue to stimulate the parasympathetic nervous system to trigger a number of reflexes. These reflexes are important to the digetsive process and general health
Sialogogues Stimulate saliva to digest carbohydrates
Orexogenics Stimulate hydrochloric acid to digest protein
Chologogues Stimulate bile flow to digest fats
More info on bitters The stimulation of the flow of digestive juices from the exocrine glands of the mouth, stomach, pancreas, duodenum and liver, aid in digestion, absorption and assimilation of foods and nutrients. There is also a very mild stimulation of endocrine activites, especially insulin and glucagon secretion by the islets of langerhans in the pancreas therefore used to treat non insulin dependent diabetes. By promoting the flow of bile bitters assist the liver in its detoxifying capacity
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