3.1 Digestion

Rahma Abz
Flashcards by Rahma Abz, updated more than 1 year ago
Rahma Abz
Created by Rahma Abz over 1 year ago


This is about the digestive system and more!

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Module 3.1 Digestion By: Rahma Salih Abdelgadir
How many cells do we have in our body? We have 50 trillion cells in our body
Define organ An organ is a structure that contains at least two different types of tissues that work together to complete a task.
Define digestion Digestion is the process that breaks down food into a useable form and making its nutrients available
Define digestive tract The digestive tract is a pathway that the food takes though series of organs. It starts off at the mouth then finishing at the anus.
What are the two types of digestion The types are 1. mechanical digestion 2. chemical digestion
What is mechanical digestion? Mechanical digestion is when the food is sliced, torn or crushed by your teeth, making into smaller pieces.
What is chemical digestion? Chemical digestion is the large complex substances in the food that are broken down into simpler chemicals by the saliva in the mouth and the gastric juice in your stomach. This will produce new, smaller chemicals that the body can absorb.
What are your four types of teeth? The types are: 1. incisors, 2. canines, 3. premolars and 4. molars
What do the incisors teeth do? The incisors are the four pairs of teeth at the front of the mouth. Their task is to bite of pieces of the food small enough to chew
What the premolars and molars do? The molars and premolars teeth grind the food into tinier and tinier pieces as you chew
What do the canine teeth do? In the humans, canine teeth have no significant function although in some animals it does.
Define saliva Saliva in your mouth is a watery liquid produced by your salivary glands
What is the function of saliva? Saliva contains a chemical that starts to change any starch in the food into the glucose, saliva also moistens the food making it slippery, slimy and easy to swallow.
Define bolus Bolus is a ball of food formed in your mouth that goes down your oesophagus
What is your oesophagus? A oesophagus is a long muscular tube that starts at the mouth and ends in the stomach
What is the function of the oesophagus? The oesophagus pushes the ball of food down the tube by contracting the muscles of the oesophagus, then muscles relax. This process called peristalsis
What is epiglottis and what does it do? Epiglottis is a flap of skin that closes the end of the windpipe as you swallow food. Epiglottis is very important because it makes sure that the food goes into the stomach not the lungs
What is sphincters? Sphincters are rings of muscle along your digestive tract.
What is the function of the first sphincters? The first type of sphincters separates the oesophagus from the stomach and it opens to let food pass though, then it closes to stop food or stomach juices from coming back up.
What is the function of the second sphincters? The second type of sphincters separates the stomach from the small intestine.
What is the function of the third sphincters? The third type of sphincters separate the stomach from the small intestine
What is the stomach? The stomach is shaped like a bag. It's a big red shape found in the left side of the upper abdomen.
What is the function of the stomach? The stomach stores food for one to six hours. The muscular walls of the stomach contract then relaxing, churning the food. This process digests the food mechanically also mixing it with gastric juice.
What are the three special cells in gastric juice? The types are; 1. hydrochloric acid, 2. mucus, 3. digestive juices
What is hydrochloric acid and its function? Hydrochloric acid, is a strong acid that kills many germs that could have been swallowed with the food.
What is mucus and its function? Mucus, is a layer on the lining of the stomach that prevents the stomach from digesting itself
What is the digestive juices and its function? Digestive juices, are juices that contain chemicals that start the digestion of protein
What is the duodenum? The duodenum is the first-part to the small intestine.
What is the function of the duodenum? The duodenum squeeze and churn the food more. This continues to break the food down, making sure its been mixed with digestive chemicals
What is the pancreas and its function? The pancreas is an organ connected to the digestive tract. It produces pancreatic juice, which holds chemicals that help protein, digest fats and carbohydrates (sugar and starches)
What is the liver and its function? The liver is a vital internal organ, no-one can live without it. It performs hundreds of different chemicals processes, like removing toxin in blood like alcohol.
What is the bile? The bile is a greenish liquid produced by a chemical process done by the liver
What is the function of the bile? The bile is the liquid responsible for mechanical digestion of fats. They break down large pieces of fat into smaller pieces that can be digested easily.
What is the ileum and its function? The ileum is the lower part of the small intestine. Its where digested food gets taken into the body
What is villi? Villi is part of ileum. It has microscopic 'fingers' that line the inside of the ileum.
What is the task of villi? Villi increases surface area of the small intestine's wall, also villi transport nutrients to the bloodstream.
What are the nutrients that pass from the small intestine? 1) fatty acids 2) amino acids 3) glucose
What is the size of the large intestine? The large intestine is 1.5 meters long and 6 to 7 cm in diameter.
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