Unit 1 Digital Media Sectors and Audiences

Christopher Elkin
Flashcards by Christopher Elkin, updated more than 1 year ago
Christopher Elkin
Created by Christopher Elkin over 6 years ago


GCSE Digital Media Flashcards on Unit 1 Digital Media Sectors and Audiences, created by Christopher Elkin on 12/14/2014.

Resource summary

Question Answer
Aberrant reading Describes when the audience interprets meaning that is different from the intention of the media producer
Access Refers to a means of approach, i.e. making media is far more accessible now than ever before
Analogue An older and now outdated system of broadcast
Active media Active viewing Media that requires audience interaction and engagement in order to acquire the full meaning or message embedded within the product, e.g. interactive videos such as The Treasure Hunt: A Chad, Matt & Rob Interactive Adventure! (2011) (available on YouTube)
Active viewing An audience/consumer/viewer that fully interacts physically with a media product, contributes and becomes part of the production while having an element of control over how they interact with it
ASA (Advertising Standards Authority) The UK's independent regulator of advertising across all media sectors
Audience profiling A detailed breakdown (profile) defining the type of audience that would be interested in a particular media text. Producers will use audience profiling when creating a new media text, such as a television programme, to suggest who the primary audience would be. Audience profiling is also used in securing advertising sponsorship and deals with companies that share a similar audience profile. An audience profile usually consists of: • Age • Aspirations • Buying habits • Gender • Interests • Lifestyle • Loyalty to brands • Media consumption habits • NRS social grade • Occupation
Audience research methods Finding out information about the audience through different means, such as questionnaires, surveys, focus groups (primary research) or Internet research and archive research (secondary research)
Audience Statistics The collection of numerical data in terms of circulation, hits, box office figures, ratings and sales that can be used to analyse the audience.
BBFC (British Board of Film Classification) Funded by the film industry, the BBFC is responsible for giving films their censorship classification, e.g. U, PG, 12A, 12,15,18, and also some video games that have specific themes or content, such as the Grand Theft Auto Series
Convenience Being able to do something with little difficulty or effort
Box office Definition 1) A place where tickets are bought and reserved Definition 2) Refers to the commercial success of a film in terms of tickets sold and gross income, as well as the popularity of the actors/actresses who contribute to the commercial success, e.g. 'box office draws'. The highest grossing film in the UK is currently Skyfall (2012) that made £102,722,887 and is the first film ever to make more than £100 million
Campaign A series of intended promotions to promote a new media product, e.g. a video game reaching out to a large audience including the target audience
Characterisation Characters within a narrative, i.e. depictions of particular personalities
Closed narrative A narrative with a clear sense of an ending and no loose ends
Codes and conventions A narrative with a clear sense of an ending and no loose ends
Codes and conventions Elements such as visual and sound, that create meaning for audiences and are typical of a particular genre or type of media product
Connectivity Refers to the state of being connected through the sense of a global village, e.g. a person in London could communicate with a person in New York via email or a social network
Connotation What a phrase or word suggests or implies, e.g. fire connotes danger and destruction
Convergence Where two or more media sectors are merged together to create synergy. An example is the convergence of print media such as newspapers and online newspaper content, e.g. The Guardian newspaper and www.guardian.co.uk
Creative media sector Refers to all areas of media production, ranging from the traditional to the interactive
Cross-media Where a media product can be distributed across a range of media platforms, e.g. the Angry Birds franchise is an excellent example of cross-media (game for different media platforms, merchandise, etc)
Demographics Used to describe the audience of a media product through factors such as age, gender and NR5 social grade, e.g. the audience demographic of Vogue magazine can be described as predominately female, of the ABCi social grade and between the ages of 20 and 40
Denotation The literal meaning of a word or phrase, e.g. the denotation of a school would be an institution that educates children
Devices The collective term to describe technological objects such as mobile phones, MP3/MP4 players, laptops, PCs, games consoles, radio, tablets
Digital The current system of broadcast
Distribution When a media product is available to the audience through advertising and promotion
Exhibition/consumption The showing of a media product
Genre A type that has a set of typical conventions
Global village A term first used by Marshall McLuhan to describe how the Internet has made communication far more accessible, enabling us to become more involved and connected with people from various social groups and countries around the world Group consumption Media platforms and devices that can be enjoyed by a group of people at the same time, e.g. MMORPGs (massively multiplayer online role-playing games)
Iconography Images or symbols that are associated with a particular person or subject
Ideology Images or symbols that are associated with a particular person or subject
Ideology A system of beliefs, ideas and values that are common to a specific group of people
Immediacy Refers to an immediate involvement with something
Individual consumption Media platforms and devices that can be enjoyed by one person, e.g. reading an e-magazine
Interactivity Digital media that encourages audience participation and interaction
Mainstream audience Describes a large target audience that consumes what are considered to be popular culture (mainstream) media texts
Mise-en-scene The arrangement of objects in the frame, e.g. actors, composition, costumes, lighting, props and sets
Mode of address How a media text speaks to an audience
Multi-strand narrative A number of different storylines within a single episode that appeals to a mass audience
Narrative Describes an account of connected events
Narrative devices Techniques that move the narrative forward, e.g. climax and plot twists
Negotiated reading Meaning that is generated depending on what the audience brings to a media text through attitudes, beliefs, values and personal experiences
Niche audience Describes a small target audience that share unique/specialised interests
NRS Social Grade A system of audience demographic classifications that are based on the occupation of the audience. This system is used in the UK.
Ofcom (Office of Communications) Known as the communications regulator, Ofcom regulates TV and radio sectors, fixed-line telecoms, mobiles, postal services and also the airwaves over which wireless devices operate, in order to protect the consumer
Omniscient narrator A narrative mode in which the narrator knows everything, giving a sense of truth and believability to the plot
Open narrative A narrative with no clear ending
Oppositional reading The rejection of the intended meaning of a media text, i.e. the audience disagrees with the intended meaning created by the media producer
Passive media Media that requires observation rather than an active response and the questioning of media texts, e.g. television can be described as passive media to some extent
Passive viewing An audience/consumer/viewer that does not fully interact physically with the product or its associated content, nor do they generate content or influence production in any way
PCC (Press Complaints Commission) A voluntary regulatory body that administers the self-regulation of the press, e.g. newspapers and magazines, by dealing with complaints about the editorial content of newspapers and magazines (print and online) that do not uphold the standard of the Code of Practice
Personalisation Adjusting content for a particular individual. Can be used to improve a user's experience and add value, e.g. being able to log in / sign in
PEGI (Pan European Game Information) A rating system that rates games based on the games' content
Platforms Describes how media products are distributed, e.g. TV broadcast, pay-per-view cinema release, digital download, DVD, radio broadcast, website (web pages), streaming, etc.
Plot Defines the events that make up a story
Polysemic reading A media text that has multiple meanings
Portability Refers to an object able to be moved with ease
Post-production Tasks that are done after filming begins. These include: • Editing video footage • Reshooting (if required) • Adding SFX • Creating and editing sound mix • Adding titles, graphics, colour/exposure correction
Preferred reading The intentional meaning of a media text created by a media producer
Pre-production Tasks that are done before production begins. These include • Building sets • Casting calls • Costume design and preparation • Production schedule • Prop design and preparation • Script development • Recce (a visit to locations to check their suitability for filming) • Securing financial backing and budgeting
Primary audience Also known as the target audience; who the media product is aimed at
Primary research Information obtained first hand from the audience
Product Term used to describe the type of media that has been produced, e.g. e-magazine, educational game, film
Production The shooting of footage
Qualitative research Describes research based on attitudes, thoughts and opinions rather than facts and figures
Quantitative research Describes research based on facts and figures that can be used to form numerical and statistical data
Representation How people, places, events and ideas are portrayed in media texts so that the audience learns to easily understand the world around them
Secondary audience Describes viewers who are considered to be outside the primary target audience and are viewers that can affect consumption statistics if not accounted for
Secondary research Research that has already been conducted by someone else and can be found in books, journals and Internet research
Sectors Different parts of the creative industry. These are separated into: • Audio • Websites • Moving image (film/video and TV) • Publishing • Games
Stereotype Typical traits associated with a particular social group or genre that become conventional and are continuously repeated and used within the media
Story Recounting the sequence of events
Structures Framework that presents the narrative in a particular order, e.g. a linear narrative will logically start at the beginning and will be chronological with a beginning, middle and end
Stylistic codes What is used in media products, e.g. colour, framing and angle, movement, composition or navigation, mise-en-scene, lighting, editing and sound
Synergy Describes two or more media sectors working together. The combined effect is considered to be greater than the lone effect of each of the individual media sectors
Technological convergence Describes the coming together of more than one media area, e.g. content that can be distributed across a range of media platforms simultaneously
The hypodermic needle model The theory that proposes that media messages can be 'injected' into the audience and can influence people to act a particular way
Themes Topics of discussion in a narrative, e.g. coming of age and conflict
User-generated content Content that can be created by the media user, such as blog posts, vlogs, podcasts mobile phone photography
Uses/gratifications model The theory that audiences use media texts in order to fulfil pleasures and basic needs, such as: • Education • Entertainment • Personal identification • Escapism • Personal relationships • Surveillance • Social interaction
WeMedia An industry term to describe user/audience (the 'we') created media without the need for media professionals.
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