Chemistry Keywords

John Appleseed
Flashcards by , created over 4 years ago

A list of all junior cert Chemistry keywords.

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John Appleseed
Created by John Appleseed over 4 years ago
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Question Answer
Matter Anything that occupies space and has mass.
Evaporation The changing of a liquid to a gas.
Condensation The changing of a gas back into its liquid state.
Diffusion The movement of particles from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration.
Solids Particles are closely packed together, don’t move but can vibrate, have a definite volume and shape.
Liquids Particles are close to each other but are free to move around, they have a definite volume but their shape can change.
Gases Particles are free to move in all directions, they don’t have a definite shape or volume and spread out to fill a container they're placed in, and they can be compressed easily since they’re spread out.
Crystallisation The formation of crystals by cooling a saturated solution.
Solute The substance being dissolved.
Solvent The liquid the solute is dissolving in.
Solution The solute and the solvent.
Soluble The ability to for a substance to dissolve in a solvent.
Insoluble A substance that can’t dissolve.
Solubility How much will dissolve.
Concentrated solution A large amount of solute in a small amount of solvent.
Saturated solution A solution that contains as much dissolved solute as possible at that temperature.
Mixture Consists of two or more substances mingled together but not chemically combined.
Filtering Used to separate an insoluble solid from a liquid.
Evaporation Used to retrieve a solute from a solution.
Distillation Used to separate substances that have different boiling points.
Chromatography Used to separate a mixture of substances which are in a solution.
An element A substance made up of only one type of atom.
A molecule Composed of two or more atoms chemically combined.
Compounds Consist of two or more elements chemically combined.
An atom The smallest part of an element which still has the properties of that element.
Atomic number The number of protons in an atom of that element.
The mass number The total number of protons and neutrons in an atom of that element.
Isotopes Atoms of the same element which have different numbers of neutrons.
Protons Positive and found in the nucleus.
Neutrons Neutral and found in the nucleus.
Electrons Negative and orbit the nucleus.
The periodic table Show the elements in order of increasing atomic numbers.
Groups Vertical columns of elements.
Periods Horizontal rows of elements in the periodic table.
An ionic bond The force of attraction between oppositely charged ions in a compound.
An ion A Charged atom or group of atoms.
A covalent bond Formed when electrons are shared between non-metal atoms.
Alloy A mixture of metals.
Rusting The corrosion of iron.
Metals Hard, dense, shiny, have high melting points, good conductors, malleable, ductile and sonorous.
Non-Metals Usually opposite to metals.
Fuels A substance that burns in oxygen to produce heat.
Fossil fuels Formed from the remains of organisms that lived millions of years ago.
Hydrocarbons Compounds made up of hydrogen and carbon.
Acids Have a PH less than 7, sour taste and turn blue litmus red.
Bases Have a PH greater than 7, tastes bitter and turns red litmus blue.
Alkali A base that is soluble in water.
The PH scale A measure of acidity or basicity, running from 0 to 14.
Neutral substance PH of 7, eg. Water.
Titrations A way of neutralising a base and acid restoring the balance.
Catalysts Substances that alter the rate of a chemical reaction but are not used up themselves by allowing particles with less energy an alternative path with a lower activation energy.
Air Contains 78% nitrogen, 21% oxygen, CO2 and water vapour.
Electrolysis The splitting up of a compound by passing electricity through it.
The meniscus The curved surface of a liquid in a vessel.
Water A compound made up of hydrogen and oxygen.
Desalination A process that obtains freshwater from seawater(saltwater).
Hard water Does not lather easily with soap and contains calcium and magnesium ions.
Soft water Lathers easily with soap.
Polymerisation Small repeating units called monomers join together to form a larger molecule called a polymer.
Plastics Man-made materials, mostly from crude oil.
Fractional distillation Separates various hydrocarbons found in crude oil.
Non-Biodegradable They remain intact for long periods of time.