Vietnam War

Millie Blemkin
Flashcards by Millie Blemkin, updated more than 1 year ago
Millie Blemkin
Created by Millie Blemkin over 6 years ago
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Flashcards on Vietnam War , created by Millie Blemkin on 01/13/2015.

Resource summary

Question Answer
Why did America get involved in the Vietnam War? - Surrender of the French / Defeat @ DIen Bien Phu in 1954 - The Domino Theory - Communist insurgency in Malaya in 1948 - Defend democracy - Geneva Conference / SEATO
What is the Domino Theory? US politicians believed the fall of one country to communism would threaten the whole of south-east Asia. This resulted in finance to French and further political involvement.
When did Diem become president in South Vietnam and why was he so unpopular? -1955 - He had a corrupt regime and was catholic in a country where 70% of population were Buddhist. Majority of opposition were buddhist.
When was the Geneva Conference and what was agreed? - 1954 - Arranged ceasefire and french withdrawal. Vietnam was divided at 17th parallel until elections in 1956. North Vietnam remained communist under control of Viet Minh. (1956 elections were rejected )
What was SEATO? It was set up by the USA in 1954 to strengthen their attempts to contain the spread of communism and justify future intervention in Vietnam. (South East Asia Treaty Organisation)
Why did US participation in Vietnam escalate during 1960-67? - Context of Cold War - Curse of appeasement - Personal concerns of US politicians - Problems with containment - Defend democracy - Policies of Kennedy - Policies of Johnson
What is the name of the communist organisation dominating Laos? Pathet Lao.
What was the NLF? National Liberation Front It was an anti-Diem coalition formed in 1960. They were communist!
Who were the Green Berets? They were sent to train the ARVN in guerrilla warfare.
What was the NSAM 52 ? National Security Action Memorandum 52 in May 1961 committed the US to prevent communist domination.
What were the strategic hamlets? This was a policy of Kennedy which attempted to separate the population from the Viet Cong. It involved moving peasants into fortified villages, guarded by troops. This backfired due to the forcible moving of peasants.
When was President Diem killed? 1963
What was Operation Rolling Thunder? In 1965 there was bombings on North Vietnam in retaliation to the Viet Cong attacks in the South.
What was the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution? In 1964 the Gulf of Tonkin Incident provided the justification for sending US troops and the bombing campaign against the north.
When did US ground troops arrive in Vietnam? March 1965
What is the name of the tactic used by the USA? 'Search and Destroy'
Why did America fail to win and thus withdraw troops from Vietnam? They failed to win the hearts and minds of the Vietnamese people
Why did the Americans treat south vietnamese civilians as sub-human? They had a lack of understanding as to why they lived as they did.
What major event changed public opinion and demonstrated the lack of understanding of Vietnamese civilians in the south? My Lai Massacre in March 1968 347 unarmed civilians were killed by US soldiers
What was used to defoliate the jungle so the enemy could be seen? Agent Orange
Were the communists difficult to defeat? Yes. As a result the USA had to use more radical methods which reduced their support further. The communists were also very determined.
What were the problems with the American Army? There was a lack of discipline and morale was low. They also distrusted the ARVN and often deployed.
What was the Tet Offensive? In January 1968 Hanoi launched an offensive against South Vietnam. NVA and VC attacked cities in the south. They aimed to cause the Saigon government to collapse. However the US were able to stop this.
Why did the Tet Offensive shock US public? They were shocked that the communists were able to move so freely and effectively in the south. It took 11,000 US and ARVN troops 3 weeks to clear Saigon of communist forces. As a result they had to publicise a level of withdrawal.
When did Nixon become President? 1969
What resulted from the loss of support from Senate and Congress? It limited the options for the President to win and made withdrawal inevitable. Administration was now pessimistic.
What did the Cambodian offensive in 1969-70 show? It showed the power of the president over congress.
Was opposition a minority or majority? Minority
What percentage of the US public wanted withdrawal from Vietnam? Around 46%
When did Johnson announce he was NOT running for presidency in the following election? 31st March 1968
What is the name of Nixon's famous speech which increased his ratings? Silent Majority Speech shot ratings up to 68%
What major protest was launched after Nixon announced the invasion of Cambodia in 1970? - Kent State University demonstration - 4 students were killed. - The invasion caused trouble on campuses all over USA
What policy did Nixon introduce to begin withdrawal and reduce the number of US troops? Vietnamisation
Why did Nixon take so long to withdraw troops from Vietnam? - Desire for peace with honour - Show strength of US power - Desire for better peace terms - Determination of the communists
Who was Nixon's national security advisor? Henry Kissinger
How many troops were withdrawn by 1970? 150,000
What did Nixon do to try to gain better peace terms? In 1970 he escalated the bombing of Laos and Cambodia.
When was a ceasefire declared? In 1973 the Paris Peace Accords declared a ceasefire.
When did communist forces over run South Vietnam with no help from USA? 1975
What is the name of the united Vietnam? Socialist Republic of Vietnam
When did Vietnam invade Cambodia? 1978 It ended the rule of Khmer Rouge
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