Earth Science Final Exam Vocab

Shannon O
Flashcards by , created almost 5 years ago

Vocabulary words about everything I have learned in advanced ninth grade earth science

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Shannon O
Created by Shannon O almost 5 years ago
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Question Answer
Rift Valley A valley formed where two pieces of a continent pull apart. (Divergent plate boundary)
Sea floor spreading Occurs at divergent plate boundary. New magma creates new sea floor and pushes old floor away
Mid-ocean ridge A ridge that is formed by magma at a divergent plate boundary.
Subduction When two plates converge and one (the less dense one) goes under the other.
Slab Pull A subducting plate will pull the rest of its plate under with it
Volcanic Arcs Volcanic arcs occur above a subduction zone where hot magma from the melting plate rises to the surface
Hot Spot Hot magma punched through the crust
Earthquake Caused by friction of plates running together
Lithification The process which sediments undergo to become a rock. They are compacted and cemented.
Compaction Sediments are squished by the weight of the sediments on top of them
Cementation Sediments being glued together
Pressure Underground there is lots of pressure because of the layers of rock
Metamorphism The act of a protolith undergoing heat and pressure to become a metamorphic rock.
Cleavage The tendency for minerals to break on a certain plane
Organic Sedimentary Rock A rock formed of organic materials
Clastic Sedimentary Rock A rock made of sediments of other rocks
Erosion Always preceded by uplifting
Mafic Rocks made of darker, heavier elements
Felsic Rocks made of elements that are lighter in color and weight
Intrusive Igneous Rocks Rocks that are formed under the surface. Take longer to crystallize because of the heat, causing large crystals
Extrusive igneous rocks Formed above the surface, causing quick cooling and small crystals
Regional Metamorphosed by the general heat and pressure of being underground
Contact Metamorphosed by coming into contact or near contact to magma.
Foliated Metamorphic rocks with distinct layers
Protolith The rock that becomes a metamorphic rock.
Normal Fault Over hanging wall slides down Caused by tensional stress
Reverse fault Overhanging wall goes up Caused by compressional stress
Strike-Slip Fault Rocks slide sideways passed each other Cause by shear stress
Index Fossils Fossils that are widespread and only lived for a short period of time
Direct light Direct light has more energy than indirect and causes higher temperatures
Indirect light Energy is spread out, lower temperatures
Evaporation Absorbing heat=molecules absorbing energy Cools surrounding liquid
Condensation Heat released Warms surroundings
Sublimation From ice to air
Deposition From vapor to ice
Air Pressure Air Pressure up=Temperature up Pressure down=temperature down
CLouds liquid water molecules that have condensed on particles in the air
Condensation Nuclei particles in the air for water vapor to condense on
Relative humidity The % of available energy available to do the work of evaporation. Num water vapor denom temp: 50/100=50% 50/200=25% 50/50=100% 50/100=50% 75/100=75% 30/100=30%
Dewpoint The temperature where condensation begins. High dewpoint= moist air because the water vapor has to heat more to condense. Low dewpoint= dry air because the air has too heat less in order dry out