Literary Genre

Tara Matthews
Flashcards by Tara Matthews, updated more than 1 year ago
Tara Matthews
Created by Tara Matthews almost 7 years ago


Leaving Certificate English Flashcards on Literary Genre, created by Tara Matthews on 01/30/2015.

Resource summary

Question Answer
Literary Genre -The way in which authors tell stories. -Refers to the techniques + devices used to engage the audience's attention in their story + hold interest throughout.
Setting - Though linked by a common theme of violence each text is set in a different time and place.
Setting - Mister Pip - Story of a young girl caught in the throes of civil war (Bougainville, Papua New Guinea 1990) - Tropical paradise in a situation which is anything but. - Shows how Matilda survives the horror of civil war through the guidance of her mother, teacher + Mr. Pip.
Setting - Juno and the Paycock - Dublin tenement during the Irish civil war 1921/2. - Combines elements of tragedy + comedy. - Story of the Boyle family's struggle with poverty + the impact of civil war violence.
Setting - I'm Not Scared - Fictional town of Acqua Traverse, Southern Italy, summer 1978. - Directed by Gabriele Salvatores, based on novel by Niccolo Ammaniti. - During anni di piombo (years of lead) a time of terrorism + kidnapping. - 10 year old Michele discovers the crime his village has committed.
Narration - The POV in any narrative influences how we interpret the text. The novel + film are narrated from the POV of the main characters. We see the world as they do + sympathise with them throughout. The play allows for a 'fly on the wall' perspective. We only see what happens within the 4 walls of the sitting room.
Narration - Mister Pip -First person narration:sympathise with Matilda - Limits the info available to the reader. - Through dialogue we discover the POV of others (Dolores + Mr Watts). - Extended flashback:more mature perspective + understanding of events. - Chronological order.
Narration - Mister Pip -Emotional journey:battles the depression that threatens to overwhelm her. - Events seen + told by Matilda serve to heighten the realism of her experience of war + emphasise the resilience + strength of character which enables her to survive unspeakable horror + mature into an insightful, self-reliant young lady
Narration - Juno and the Paycock -Not told from the perspective of any one character. Each character is allowed to voice strongly their beliefs + 'principles'. - Often we find their actions don't match their rhetoric. -Johnny: Hero of 1916 + War of Independence but is actually an unprincipled traitor.
Narration - Juno and the Paycock - Jerry Devine: Self proclaimed believer in humanity but actually turns out to be as lacking in humanity as the pompous Bentham. - Boyle + Joxer: despicable individuals - Sympathises lie with the long suffering Juno who doesn't know 'what any o' yous ud do without your ma'
Narration - I'm Not Scared - In film the camera is the narrator often allowing for an omniscient viewpoint. - Perspective of naive + discerning 10yr old Michele. Everything he sees + hears is simultaneously experienced by the viewer. - We are given time to think about what is happening + we share Michele's growing awareness of the evil aroundhim.
Dialogue - Dialogue plays an important role in bringing characters to life, in helping us to better understand relationships and creating a sense of place.
Dialogue - Mister Pip - Mr Watts' refined English accent vs pidgin English of islander. Emphasises the gulf in understanding between Watts and the islanders, especially Dolores. - Simplicity + innocence of islanders way of life is reflected in the stories of the parents at the school (wonder in everyday things).
Dialogue - Mister Pip - Coarse violent language of Redskins sets the novel in a more modern period + effectively brings out the lack of humanity of those involved in violence.
Dialogue - Juno and the Paycock - Principle means of narration. - Vibrant dialogue of the Boyles sets the play firmly in working class Dublin. - Dublin accents creates a sense of realism. - Boyle's oratorical flourishes confirm the accuracy of his name - Paycock and portray him as a vain selfish man.
Dialogue - Juno and the Paycock - Joxer's ingratiating cunning nature is revealed in his echoing of Boyle's views on religion and politics. However, when he speaks to Needle Nugent of his 'butty' in an astonishingly venomous manner he reveals his hypocrisy and nasty vindictivness.
Dialogue - I'm Not Scared - Criminals (like Redskins) use coarse + obscene language which emphasises the murky world they have embraced + adds to the realism of the story - shows their capacity for abuse and cruelty. - Children's dialogue (excluding Skull) is innocent + naive portraying their blissful ignorance of the horrors around them.
Dialogue - I'm Not Scared - Dialogue between Michele + Pino is some of the most poignant in the text. When Michele asks 'why did you put him in there? I don't get it' Pino is unable to answer, revealing his growing awareness of what they have done is wrong.
Creation of Tension and Suspense - The creation of tension is integral to storytelling. Tension is part of what involves the reader in the story and is used effectively in all 3 texts using techniques which are specific to the genre. Jones uses vivid descriptions of events, O'Casey dramatic on-stage action and Salvatores uses cinematic techniques.
Creation of Tension and Suspense - Mister Pip - Simple sentences + descriptions. - Description of Pop Eye: short, simple sentences + repetition to capture a girl's curiosity at an eccentric + unusual white man who becomes her teacher. - Palpable feeling of suspense when the Redskins first visit demanding to know the location and identity of Mr. Pip
Creation of Tension and Suspense - Mister Pip - Feel the rising terror when Matilda is unable to find the copy of Great Expectations to prove Mr Pip is fictional. - Similar tension is created when Watts, Dolores, Daniel + his grandmother are massacred. Matilda's account is factual + unemotional (allowing the reader to supply emotions).
Creation of Tension and Suspense - Mister Pip - Tension is created by Dolores' battle with Mr Watts for Matilda. -Dolores has beliefs derived from God, Watts' are derived from literature.
Creation of Tension and Suspense - Mister Pip - Her failure to admit to the theft of GE which results in the burning of the villagers possessions add to the tension as Matilda believes her mother is a hypocrite. This tension is resolved when she refuses to compromise her religious beliefs after Watts is butchered 'I saw your man chop up the white man.
Creation of Tension and Suspense - Juno and the Paycock - Uses a variety of dramatic visual + aural devices to make a powerful impact on the audience. - Stage directions, facial expressions, body language + tone of voice combine to create tension. - Mary reads about Robbie Tancred's death in the paper...
Creation of Tension and Suspense - Juno and the Paycock -Johnny's 'crouched' body illustrates his agitation. His reactions create unanswered questions, adding to the tension. - Tension reaches a climax when he is dragged away to his death pleading hysterically for mercy + clutching rosary beads for comfort.
Creation of Tension and Suspense - Juno and the Paycock -Juno working like a slave to support the family while Boyle drinks the money. - Boyle inflicts misery on his family, ceasing the humour of the play - Again our sympathises lie with Juno who leaves him as she attempts to cope with Johnny's death and assist Mary.
Creation of Tension and Suspense - I'm Not Scared -Features of thriller + mystery story - Visual, sound effects + contrasts to create atmosphere + reveal the strain which affects his characters. - Opening shots: damp, rocky surface of the pit, slowly tracked to the title, scrawled in a childish hand on the rockface
Creation of Tension and Suspense - I'm Not Scared - Sounds of insects mingle with water dripping and simple, childish piano. - Bird of prey: ominous - Atmosphere is laden with thoughts of death and burial. - FEAR becomes the dominant mood similar to the other texts
Creation of Tension and Suspense - I'm Not Scared - Anna, like Juno struggles with the pressures of poverty + stress. - Dominated by her husband unlike Juno and Dolores, never expresses opinions. - Anna's tension is taken out on children. - Use of sound, lighting + close up shots to emphasise the tension in the Amitrano house.
Role of Humour - Authors sometimes use humour to lighten to mood/alleviate the tension in a serious story. A major contrast in the texts is the extent to which humour is used.
Role of Humour - O'Casey makes excellent use of farce + slapstick to relieve the gloom of the play's more serious episodes. Jones uses very light touches of dry humour, making the characters more endearing. There is no effort by Salvatores to inject comedy into his narrative.
Role of Humour - Mister Pip - Matilda's narrative voice has a trademark dry humour - Description of how Watts came by his nickname of Pop Eye 'His large eyes in his large head stuck out further than anyone else's like they wanted to leave the surface of his face. They made you think of someone who can't get out the house quick enough.
Role of Humour - Mister Pip - Gentle humour from the islanders more abstract lessons on life: 'silly as bats... argue like roosters...big bums' adds fun. - The humour in the novel adds a light + dreamy quality to Jones' world, it makes characters endearing + the comic touches complement rather than undermine the seriousness of the story.
Role of Humour - Juno and the Paycock - Confrontations between Juno + Joxer, Boyle's pretence about his efforts to get a job, the wonderful 1 liners of Juno as he exposes her husband's hypocrisy 'It's miraculous that whenever he scents a job in front of him, his legs begin to fail'
Role of Humour - Juno and the Paycock - Humour is never absent from the play for long. The gloom of the final act is relieved by the farcical removal of Boyle's suit by Needle Nugent. Final scene: darkly comic. Comedy serves to highlight the tragedy of the events that occur and provide relief from the tragic account of war + suffering
Role of Humour - I'm Not Scared - The tragic events leave very little room for humour. - Themes of poverty, violence, evil + suffering are realistically + graphically conveyed. - Salvatores doesn't attempt to significantly lighten the mood with comic moments.
Symbolism and Imagery - Imagery + symbolism are used to enhance an author's theme. It makes it more interesting + adds a deeper layer of meaning. Symbolism + imagery play a vital, enriching role in each text +help to clarify meaning.
Symbolism and Imagery - Mister Pip - Great Expectations: the islanders turn again + again to Dickens' words to escape from their reality + to remember, change + share their own life stories. Reconstructing the novel is metaphor for rebuilding lives.
Symbolism and Imagery - Mister Pip - Storm + flash flood after the murders: turmoil in the natural world reflects the turmoil within Matilda. Storm reflects Dolores' death + the chaos of Matilda's emotions. - Flood: loss of hope + loss of will to live.
Symbolism and Imagery - Mister Pip - Imagery from the natural world: image of predator vs prey (Redskins vs villagers) suggests the villagers' helplessness in the face of the soldiers. - Soldiers movements like animals movements (lost their humanity).
Symbolism and Imagery - Juno and the Paycock - Will: escape + freedom for the family. - The light, which Johnny insists on maintaining before the picture of the Virgin Mary symbolises protection + comfort, its extinction foreshadows the execution of Johnny at the end of the play. - Virgin Mary: motherhood/pain of losing a son. - Removal of furniture precedes the breaking up of the family.
Symbolism and Imagery - I'm Not Scared - Golden cornfield: innocence + childhood. When cut down: loss of innocence. - Brutal killing + impaling of the hen demonstrates the innate violence of the children which in turn mirrors that of the adult world. - Pigs who eat human bones: savage brutality (similar to MP).
Symbolism and Imagery - I'm Not Scared - Imaginings of witches: symbolise his deepest fears + his awareness of dark forces surrounding him. - Light vs dark: struggle between good + evil - Short straw Pino draws: the role played by fate + suggests how little control humans have over thier own lives + the destructive consequences of evil.
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