Atomic Structure Overview

megan8kelly
Flashcards by megan8kelly, updated more than 1 year ago
megan8kelly
Created by megan8kelly about 6 years ago
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8th grade Science Flashcards on Atomic Structure Overview, created by megan8kelly on 02/02/2015.

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Question Answer
What are the 3 parts of an atom? proton, neutron, electron
What does the atomic number represent? the number of protons an atom has
# of protons = ? # of electrons
what is an isotope? a form of an atom that has a varying number of neutrons
what is an ion? an atom with a net electrical charge (either positive or negative) due to the loss or gain of an electron/s
? + ? = atomic mass weight of protons, weight of neutrons
atomic mass is the ? of different isotopes average mass
what is atomic mass measured in? atomic mass units (amu)
proton (charge, mass, location) positive , 1 atomic mass unit , nucleus
neutron (charge, mass, location) no charge , 1 atomic mass unit , nucleus
electron (charge, mass, location) negative , nothing , energy level / electron cloud
? - ? = # of neutrons atomic mass , atomic #
how many electrons can each energy level / orbital hold? first = 2 second = 8 third = 8
what would make an element stable? all *used* energy levels are full
what is ionic bonding? when electrons are either donated and / or received
what are valence electrons? the electrons in the outermost energy level
what is an atoms' valence? # of electrons in outermost energy level
if Lithium and Chlorine ionically bond, who is more likely to donate its electrons? (Li has a valence of 1 and Cl a valence of 7) Lithium because it uses less energy to give or receive 1 electron as opposed to 7
what is covalent bonding? bonding in the form of sharing electrons
is the element described on the periodic table an isotope of that element? no
what was Democritus' theory? eventually the smallest piece of matter could be obtained + he named it atomos ("not to be cut") + looked like a billiard ball + "small, hard particles" + shaped and sized differently + made of same material + were infinite + were always moving and were able to join together
what did Democritus get wrong? what did he get right? wrong: looked like a billiard ball + were infinite right: smallest piece of matter could be obtained + these were small particles that were shaped and sized differently + were always moving + were able to join together + made of same material
what did Plato and Aristotle theorize? were they even slightly correct? that matter was divided into four elements: earth, fire, air, and water no, but people believed them
what was Dalton's theory? did he get anything wrong? deduced all elements were made of atoms + that atoms of the same elements were exactly alike + that compounds are formed by joining the atoms of different elements together he missed a lot + but technically no
what did J. J. Thompson theorize? "plum pudding" model: positively charged substance with negatively charged electrons scattered about inside + also said that atom must have positively charged particles + atom was divisible
what did J. J. Thompson get wrong? what did he get right? wrong: that atoms were like plum pudding right: atom is made of smaller particles (positively/negatively charged) now called electrons and protons + atom is divisible
what did Earnest Rutherford discover? the proton + open space + neutron
how did Rutherford discover open space + the proton + the neutron? what did he conclude from this experiment? the gold foil experiment: shot particles at gold sheet and found that most went through but some bounced back / away concluded: atoms were mostly OPEN SPACE + had small, dense, positively charged center "nucleus" + plum pudding model but with electrons around it
did Rutherford get anything wrong? that the nucleus was positively charged
what was the Bhor model? what was right? what was wrong? Bhor model: electrons travel in energy levels + definite orbits located a certain distance from nucleus wrong: don't move in orbit at any particular distance
what differs the wave model? based on wave mechanics + uses a mathematical function to display likeliness of electron being in certain area around an nucleus + flinging depends on Kinetic Energy
what does the staircase on the periodic table divide? metals on the left and nonmetals on the right
what do the "groups" on the periodic table indicate? where are they located? location: on top indication: each column has that particular # of valence electrons
what do the numbers on the side of the table indicate? that the elements in that row have that particular # of orbitals
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