Geography AQA Revison topics Migration, Population Change, Youthful Populations and more

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Flashcards by dburns8731, updated more than 1 year ago
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For Students doing their GCSEs, a helpful summary of many topics, including definitions and case studies

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Question Answer
Population Distribution the spread of people across the Earth's surface
Density population the number of people living in a given area
Population density- how to work it out Total population/Total area= no. of people in a sq km
Density variation factors Education Climate Industrial opportunities Economy Growth of crops Housing
Birth rate Number of live births per thousand per year
Death rate Number of deaths per thousand per year
Natural increase/ decrease Difference between birth and death rate
Fertility rate Births per 1000 women of childbearing age
Stage 1 Birth rate and death rate are very high, total population remains low- medicine and sanitation is quite primitive and a lack of education about birth control
Stage 2 Birth rate remains high but a rapid decrease in the death rate; advances in medicine and sanitation. The total population has a rapid increase as life expectancy increases.
Stage 3 Birth rate has a steep decline but remains higher than the death rate so the total population keeps increasing. Life expectancy lengthens as medicine improves and general health improves.
Stage 4 Birth rate fluctuates, going above and below the death rate, which stays low (fluctuations could be due to periods of infertility). The BR stays above the DR mostly, and the population has a steady rate of increase.
Demographic variables- Primary variables E.g crude birth and death rates, which operate to naturally change the population of an area.
Demographic variables- Secondary variables Social Economical Political Cultural Religious
Stage 1 Key summary and case studies High birth rate High death rate Low population Some tribal groups
Stage 2 Key summary and case studies High birth rate Falling death rate Gradually increasing population e.g Sierra Leone Congo Small Pacific Islands
Stage 3- Key summary and case studies Low death rate-stable Falling birth rate Increasing total population e.g Brzail, India, China, Pakistan, Peru (Emerging economies)
Stage 4 key summary and case studies Fluctuating birth rate Low, stable death rate Population is high but stabilizing e.g UK USA Japan France
LEDC/LIC Less economically developed/ Lower income country
MEDC/HIC More economically developed country/ Higher income country
Factors for a high birth rate in an LEDC/LIC Children needed to work the land and earn more money. To care for parents when they are old or ill. So many die from disease due to lack of medical care. Religion forbids birth control Large families a cultural aspect and give status in communities. Women's role in society as mothers.
Factors for a low birth rate in an MEDC/HIC Family planning and access to birth control. Lower infant mortality rate in MEDC/HIC Able to spend more on living and entertainment- higher paying jobs. Feminism and career driven women Longer life expectancy- sanitation and medical healthcare.
Overpopulation When the number of people outweigh the availability of resources
Infant mortality rate the number of children per 1000 born alive that die before the age of 1 year.
Life expectancy Average amount of years a person born in a country can expect to live.
Somalia- overpopulation effects Deforestation and overgrazing has lead to deserification and lack of minerals in the land. Frequent droughts have led to famine, disease and malnutrition- lack of health care and education on sanitation High BR + High DR Extreme climate-people migrate elsewhere due to low GDP.
Mumbai- Overpopulation effects Workers and their families migrate from rural areas to Mumbai looking for work. Inadequate supplies of fresh water, food and electricity due to overpopulation. Shortage of housing, jobs and building materials as space runs out.
Population pyramids The total population divided into 5-year age groups. Each bar shows the percentage of people in these age groups. Split in half vertically to show male and female age groups.
Population Pyramid Stage 1-2 characteristics. Wide base- high birth rate and increasing population. Deep concave shape- high infant mortality and rising to a low life expectancy. Small top of pyramid- High death rate and a low percentage of population is elderly. Shows which gender lives longer.
Population Pyramid Stage 3-4 Characteristics Narrow base-low and falling birth rate (due to brith control and family planning) Rectangular middle- low infant mortality rate and a low death rate- also shows majority of population is middle aged. Relatively large top of pyramid- Large life expectancy and shows a low death rate due to medicine and sanitation.
Dependency Ratio (No. of children under 15+ no. of people over 65) divided by (No. of people aged 16-64). Then times this by 100 to get a percentage.
Case Study- The Gambia- Key Statistics Total population- 1.559 million (2008) Pop'n density- 127 per sq km % of pop'n <15= 44 % of pop'n <25= 63.55 % of pop'n >65= 3.36% BR=38 DR=11 Infant mortality rate= 75 Life expectancy= 58 % contraceptive use married women=10% % contraceptive use single women=0
The Gambia- Youthful population causes HIV/AIDS- impact on life expectancy, ability of older generation to undertake jobs. Contraception- lack of access due to religion or lack of education about family planning. Low GNI- lack of personal finance (affects access to medical care) Relates to Islamic Values- contraception is frowned upon.
Impacts of a youtful population Quality of life( overcrowding)- houses, urban areas Pressure on schools, medical facilities+land availability Plentiful labour resource( but pressure on industrial sectors to absorb this workforce- exacerbated by enviro. limitations in developing agriculture)
The Gambia- Policies to combat youthful populations Focus on family planning and availability of contraception (particularly in rural areas). Health centres that try to educate couples on spacing births and the value of only one child. Contraception is restricted to persons aged 21 or over. Liaison with Islamic leaders.
Pro natalist policy Policy that aims to encourage more births through the use of incentives. e.g in France
France Ageing population- concerns Concerns over the decrease in labour supply in the workforce due to more elderly dependants and less people of working age. Socio-economic implications of ageing population Long term prospect of population decline and demise.
French Pro Natalist Incentives Payments of up to £1064 to couples having a third child. 30% fare reduction for all 3 child families on all public transport. Pension schemes for mothers and housewives Child orientated development policies e.g day nurseries, nannies, creches.
France Factfile Pop'n: 66,259,012 BR: 12.49 per 1000 DR: 9.06 per 1000 Maternal mortality rate:8 per 1000
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