Asian Art History

Mabel Wang
Flashcards by Mabel Wang, updated more than 1 year ago
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Mid-term quiz study flashcards for asian art history

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Question Answer
Yogin One who is engaged in yogic practices. It is a pan-Indic practice seen in most Indian religions.
Emperor Ashoka (262-239 BCE) The first historical king to have sponsored early Buddhist art. Royal patronage becomes an ideal of kingship throughout the Buddhist world
Stupa A solid earthen burial mound for memorial purposes. It enshrines relics of the Buddha or of other famous monks
Buddha The enlightened one. Refers to the historical figure, Siddhartha Gautama, born into the Shakya clan, a.k.a Shakyamuni or sage of the Shakyas.
Bodhisattva First applied to the Buddha before his enlightenment Then applied to a number of compassionate beings, who have postponed their enlightenment to help other beings
Mudra Hand gestures in Indian art, ritual, and dance that indicate various meanings
Bodhi Tree (ficus tree or ficus religiosa) Tree under which Buddha obtained enlightenment
Jatakas Former life stories of Buddha that are often depicted in early Buddhist art
Yakshi semi-divine fertility figures found in early Buddhist art
Hinduism Refers to a broad group of inter-connected religious traditions in the Indian subcontinent
Shiva Hindu god, carries trident, has a third eye, and rides a bull.
Vishnu Holds a conch shell and discuss, rides the Garuda bird. 10 incarnations, 10th yet to come.
Durga The warrior-goddess, who defeated buffalo-demon, Mahisha
Puja Ritual Hindu worship that can take place at temple or home
Darsan The act of seeing a deity
Ramayana An Indian epic that narrates the story of Rama, an incarnation of Vishnu
Akbarnama History or Tales of Akbar, the most famous of Mughal rulers, 2 volumes Written by Abul Fazl. During 1590s, Mughal artist produced illustrations for the Akbarnama.
Aniconism In early Buddhist art, symbols (footprints, parasols, empty seats, bodhi trees, the wheel) depicted the Buddha.
Veda Literally means knowledge. Sacred literature composed by the Aryas
Indra A Vedic god of thunder, rain, clouds. Later, especially in Buddhism, he is seen as the king of gods, especially of the Trayastrimsa heaven
Dhamma The doctrine of which the Buddha taught
Sangha Community of the monks
Three Jewels of Buddhism Buddha Dhamma (Teaching) Sangha
Toranas Gateways
Tribhanga three-bend posture
a6fd9d50-3187-436a-a1b3-25b914534993.png (image/png) Abhaya Mudra
76ff4388-6945-48f6-a547-6ccac2a54bb4.png (image/png) Dharmachakra (Turning the wheel of the law)
5ad03e86-2c4b-40a6-981a-8b7b3e9c874e.png (image/png) Bhumisparsha (earth-touching)
Lakshanas Well-placed foot (Flat-foot) Broad feet Body frame well-grown, tall & straight Arms reach to knees Lion like torso Shoulders gently curved Urna Usnisha
Buddha, Gandhara, Afghanistan & Pakistan, Schist, 1st - 3rd century CE Stylized image, Greco-Roman Apollo type Hellenistic Wavy hair Monastic robe draped in heavy classical folds reminiscent of a Roman toga, over both shoulders Ushnisha, Urna Haughty profile of olympian god, ethereal faces Absence of Jewellery Perfect male physique & proportions
Buddha, Mathura, India, Sandstone, 2nd-3rd century CE Pleasant chubby features Powerful, lion-like torso Robust physique, "swelling" Heavily emphasised penis underneath draped clothing Bulging pectorals and muscular thighs Right hand "fear-not" Abhaya mudra Smooth shell-like hairstyle, turban hair Globular eyes * emphatically drawn eyebrows
Usnisha a wisdom bump on the crown of the head
Urna A curl of hair resting between eyebrows depicted as a dot between the eyebrows.
4 Great Miracles 4 main events in the Buddha's life: birth, enlightenment, first sermon, passing away
mahaparinirvana (nirvana) Great Passing Away indicating there is no future birth
Axial principle in Hindu shrines The concern with direct visual contact means that sacred monuments are laid out so as to emphasize the progression from the entrance towards the sanctuary doorway. The shrines consist of a womb chamber with a doorway sheltered by a porch.
Dharma Traditional law, the agent of moral well-being and prosperity
Royal Patrons Inscriptions on buildings and works of art record donations of kings and queens. Ideal Hindu ruler upholds dharma. While rulers were expected to assert their military power & authority, they were also responsible for the spiritual welfare of their people. They believe they will be rewarded for donations by blessings from the deity. Guarantee victory for troops & prosperity for people. This was crucial in achieving legitimacy & maintaining control
Vishnu Anantasayana Relief, on south, Vishnu Temple, Deogargh, India, stone, 6th century CE Asleep on coils of giant multi-headed serpent, Ananta. Brahma depicted separately, seated on a lotus blossom & accompanied in upper register by other deties. Lakshmi, massages Vishnu's legs. Base of 6 figures, include the personifications of Vishnu's symbols & 2 armed demons
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