Nervous System

Flashcards by 4everlakena, updated more than 1 year ago


11th grade Nursing Flashcards on Nervous System, created by 4everlakena on 03/03/2015.

Resource summary

Question Answer
What nerve pairs make up the peripheral nervous system? Cranial Spinal
What are the two subdivisions of the autonomic nervous system? parasympathetic sympathetic
How many pairs of spinal nerves are there? 31
How many pairs of cranial nerves are there? 12
Efferent nerves are also known as... Motor nerves
Arachnoid mater Innermost layer of the brain
What produces the Cerebrospinal fluid? Choroid Plexus
Synapse Junction between two nerve cells
What does the axonal terminal do? Release neurotransmitters
What does the dendrite do? Conducts electrical currents toward the body
What is does the myelin sheath help with? Increase the speed of impulse transmission
What does the axon do? Conducts impulses away from the cell body
What is the difference between neurotransmitters and impulses? Impulses are electrical and neurotransmitters are chemical
Terminals__ information while dendrites __ information Terminals send information while dendrites receive information
What are other functions of the Cerebrospinal fluid? Takes in nutrients Removes waste
What connects the two hemispheres of the brain? Corpus Callosum
What are the two main parts of the diencephalon? Thalamus Hypothalamus
What are the three main parts of the lower brain stem? Midbrain pons medulla oblongata
What are the three types of neurons? Sensory (afferent) Motor (efferent) Interneurons
What is the function of myelin? Provides insulation to prevent short circuiting fibers.
Dura mater Outer brain covering
Pia mater Innermost layer
Choroid plexus a.k.a blood brain barrier (with selective permeability)
What is the biggest part of the brain? cerebrum
Longitudinal fissures Deep grooves that divide the brain into left and right
Transverse fissure Divides cerebrum from cerebellum
Gyri Elevated ridges
Sulci Shallower grooves
What does the frontal lobe control? voluntary movements Reasoning Impulse control problem solving
What does the Broca's area control? Speech
What is the parietal lobe in charge of? receives and interprets nerve impulses from sensory receptors
What does the occipital lobe control? Vision
What does the temporal lobe contain? Auditory area
What is the Wernicke's area in charge of? speech understanding comprehension
What does the hippocampus control? Memory and learning Recognizing new info Recall special relationships
What does the amygdala influence? behavior Associated with emotional reactions,
What does the Thalamus do? Acts as a relay station for incoming and outgoing nerve impulses
What body system is the hypothalamus linked to? Endocrine system
What is the hypothalamus known as? brain of the brain
What does the cerebellum do? Maintains balance Muscle tone Coordination of muscle mobvement
What is the function of Pons Helps control breathing Connects parts of the brain with each other
What is the midbrain in charge of? hearing vision
What id the medulla oblongata the center for? swallowing Vomiting
What is the major function of the spinal cord? Carries messages from sensory neurons to the brain for interpretation Reflex center
What do afferent nerves do? Sensory Take info from receptors to the Central Nervous System
What do efferent nerves do? Motor neurons Convey info from CNS to the muscles and glands
What is the sympathetic nervous system for? Speeds up activity requires energy
What does the parasympathetic nervous system do? Speed up vegetative activities (such as urination and digestion) and slows down or restores other activities
What does the parasympathetic nervous system use as a neurotransmitter? acetycholine
What type of fibers do the dorsal root contain? Sensory nerve fibers
What type of fibers do the ventral root contain? Motor nerve fibers Anterior
What does the cervical plexus do? gives motor movement to muscles of the neck and shoulders receives messages
Where does the brachial plexus give movement to? shoulder wrist Hand gives messages to those areas
To what area does the Lumbar plexus give movement to? Butt anterior legs and thighs
What area does the sacral plexus give movement to? Back/posterior of legs and thighs
What is the largest nerve of the body? Sciatic nerve
What is the simplest type of nerve response? Reflex
Transient Ischemic Attack Mini Stroke temporary reduction of blood flow to the brain 2-5 min
Cerebrovascular accident when blood flow to th ebrain is interupted
What are the two types of a cerebrovascular accident? Ischemic Hemorrhagic
What is the difference between an ischemic and hemorrhagic cerebrovascular accident Ischemic -> Blood clot, treated with clot busting drugs Hemorrhagic -> Rupture of a blood vessel Harder to treat and more deadly
Hemiparesis Weakness of one side of the body
Hemiplegia Paralysis of one half of the body
Aphasia inability to express or understand speech if the left side of the brain is damaged
Paraplegia Paralysis of the trunk (usually below the waist) and both legs
Quadriplegia Paralysis of the trunk (usually below the neck) both arms and legs
Melastic cancers More common travel and spread throughout the body a.k.a secondary tumor
Meningitis Inflammation of the lining of the brain and lungs (meninges) s/s: headache, fever, and stiff neck
Encephalitis Inflammation of the brain
Cerebral Palsy Disturbance in voluntary muscular movement due to brain damage
Epilepsy Seizure disorder of the brain characterized by a reoccurring and excessive discharge from the neurons
Grand mal seizure a.k.a Tonic clonic seizure loss of consciousness and violent muscle contractions
Absence or petit mal seizure brief or sudden lapse of conscious activity mostly in children
Post ictal state After the seizure Brain recovers from trauma
Hydrocephalus Increased volume of CSF in ventricles of the brain
MS Autoimmune, inflammatory disease Immune cells attack myelin sheath & the myelin sheath are destroyed Destruction delays or completely blocked transmission of nerve impuses in affected areas
Alzheimers disease Progressive disease cant remember recent memories Nerve endings in brain degenerate and block signals Abnormal fibers build p and cause tangles
For alzheimers disease, what are the areas of degeneration called? plaques
Neuritis inflammation of a nerve
Sciatica Inflammation of sciatic nerve
Bell's Palsy Involves 7th cranial nerve (Facial) One side of their face droops and is numb
Shingles Acute viral infection One sided infection of cutaneous nerve
Carpal tunnel syndrome Affects median nerve and flexor tendons that attach to the carpals
Concussion caused by severe blows to the head results in bran damage and can cause unconsciousness
What connects the brain to the peripheral nervous system? Medulla
What are the two divisions of the PNS? Autonomic Somatic
Systematic nervous system Subdivision of the peripheral nervous system Controls skeletal sysytem
Side of the brain responsible for logical thinking left
What are the four main parts of the brain? Cerebrum Diencephalon Brain Stem Cerebellum
what connects the brain to the peripheral nervous system? Medulla
What nerve goes with the cervical plexus? The phrenic nerve
What is the cervical plexus in charge of? Diaphragm
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