Modern History - Japanese Nationalism

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Flashcards on Modern History - Japanese Nationalism, created by georgie.3 on 03/14/2015.

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Question Answer
Nationalism An extreme for of patriotism marked by a feeling of superiority over other countries
Japanese Nationalism Encompasses a broad range of ideas and sentiments harboured by the Japanese people over the last two centuries regarding their native country, its cultural nature, political form and historical destiny
Japanese Nationalism (Meiji Period) In Meiji period Japan, nationalist ideology consisted of a blend of native and imported political philosophies, initially developed by the Meiji government to promote national unity and patriotism, first in defence against colonization by Western powers, and later in a struggle to attain equality with the Great Powers.
Japanese Nationalism (Tokugawa Shogunate) During the final days of the Tokugawa Shogunate, the perceived threat of foreign encroachment, especially after the arrival of Commodore Matthew C. Perry and the signing of the Kanagawa Accord, led to increased prominence to the development of nationalist ideologies.
Tokugawa Shogunate - The daimyo struggled with each other until 1598 when General Tokugawa Ieyasu managed to gain military control of Japan. - Ieyasu was made shogun in 1603 by the emperor - Ieyasu and his successors maintained power and gave a period of peace in Japan for 264 years
Tokugawa Shogunate (Continued) - The Tokugawa were determined to control Japan and to prevent any uprisings against their rule - A series of regulations were drafted to formalise their power - The daimyo were required to spend a part of each year in Tokyo, away from their families – this was an attempt to foil any attacks by the daimyo against the Tokugawa
Tokugawa Shogunate (Social Ranks)
Change in the Tokugawa Society Everything began to change – barter system became a money system, peasant uprisings, periods of famine and increased taxations amongst farmers, gap between the rich and the poor grew, by the nineteenth century leaderless samurai posed as threats to the Tokugawa and then Commodore Perry arrived
Meiji Restoration (1868 to 1912) - Japans plan was to seek knowledge ‘among nations of the world’. - Learning from nations that modernised successfully - Groups of young bright men sent to Europe and North America, studying government and banking system from US, education and army from Prussia and the navy from Great Britain
12 Factors of Nationalism 1. Improved Communication – for when national issues take priorities over local ones 2. Improved methods of transporting goods and people – people had access to be directly involved in national issues 3. Advanced information technology 4. Common adherence to a particular economic system – improved trades and relations 5. Education – shaping a common instrument and will 6. Religious loyalties – basing separation/superiority on beliefs (e.g. Pakistan (Muslim) from India) 7. Growth of secularism 8. Acceptance of vernacular 9. Philosophies/Romantic movement – (literature and arts) drive to reject traditional restraints in a search for freedom [Romantic Movement] & developing theories of ‘superior race’ [Philosophies] 10. Emphasis on superiority 11. Opposition to threat 12. Involvement of the masses – going to war
Sino-Japanese War (1894-95) Who: Japan & China Why: -Korea's location and natural resources had attracted Japan's attention - Rejected the option of leaving Korea for another country - China posed a threat to Korea and therefore Japan's security Result: -Japan adds Korean Peninsula to sphere of influence - Showed corruption and ineffectiveness of Qing government in China
Russo-Japanese War (1904-05) Who: Japan and Russia Why: Both Russia and Japan had been jostling for several years over the control of Korea & Manchuria (as they were both strategically and economically beneficial Effects: - Japan becomes first Asian power in modern times to defeat a European power - Japan had become a rising Asian power and had proven that its military could combat major powers of Europe - Most westerners were stunned that the Japanese not only prevailed by decisively defeated Russia
Meiji Restoration (1868 to 1912) - In 1867 Western nations were undergoing the Industrial Revolution, so industrialisation became a key aim in the Meiji period - Japans plan was to seek knowledge ‘among nations of the world’. - Learning from nations that modernised successfully - Groups of young bright men sent to Europe and North America, studying government and banking system from US, education and army from Prussia and the navy from Great Britain
Meiji Restoration (Samurai problem) - Imperial government took over responsibility for ‘military affairs’ - To the samurai it was clear their military roles were being taken over by conscripted civilians - Major rebellions by samurai between 1873 and 1877 - 1880 – samurai had been broken – government did view this as wasted talent so they took steps to involve them in industry and business as owners, operators, managers and workers
Meiji Restoration (Continued) - 11th February 1890 – Emperor announced a new constitution for Japan - Ito Hirobumi of the Choshu clan had most influence on drafting the new constitution - Ito is a symbol for the Meiji period as he originally was against the Western world but saw Western modernisation vital for the good of Japan - Ito Hirobumi was the Prime Minister and based the Japanese constitution on a similar one to Germany
Reconstruction of Japan After WW2 After the defeat of Japan in World War II, the United States led the Allies in the occupation and rehabilitation of the Japanese state In a series of wartime conferences, the leaders of the Allied powers of Great Britain, the Soviet Union, the Republic of China, and the United States discussed how to disarm Japan, deal with its colonies (especially Korea and Taiwan), stabilize the Japanese economy, and prevent the remilitarization of the state in the future The occupation of Japan can be divided into three phases: the initial effort to punish and reform Japan, the work to revive the Japanese economy, and the conclusion of a formal peace treaty and alliance
Reconstruction of Japan after WW2 (Phase One) - Roughly from the end of the war in 1945 through 1947, involved the most fundamental changes for the Japanese Government and society - The Allies punished Japan for its past militarism and expansion by convening war crimes trials in Tokyo - SCAP (Supreme Commander for the Allied Powers) dismantled the Japanese army and banned former military officers from taking roles of political leadership in the new government - SCAP introduced land reform, designed to benefit the majority tenant farmers and reduce the power of rich landowners, many of whom had advocated for war and supported Japanese expansionism in the 1930s
Reconstruction after WW2 (Second Phase) - By late 1947 and early 1948, the emergence of an economic crisis in Japan alongside concerns about the spread of communism sparked a reconsideration of occupation policies - In this stage of the occupation, which lasted until 1950, the economic rehabilitation of Japan took centre stage - SCAP became concerned that a weak Japanese economy would increase the influence of the domestic communist movement, and with a communist victory in China’s civil war increasingly likely, the future of East Asia appeared to be at stake - Occupation policies to address the weakening economy ranged from tax reforms to measures aimed at controlling inflation - Most serious problem was the shortage of raw materials required to feed Japanese industries and markets for finished goods
Reconstruction after WW3 (Third Phase) - Beginning in 1950, SCAP deemed the political and economic future of Japan firmly established and set about securing a formal peace treaty to end both the war and the occupation - The U.S. perception of international threats had changed so profoundly in the years between 1945 and 1950 that the idea of a re-armed and militant Japan no longer alarmed U.S. officials; instead, the real threat appeared to be the creep of communism, particularly in Asia - The final agreement allowed the United States to maintain its bases in Okinawa and elsewhere in Japan, and the U.S. Government promised Japan a bilateral security pact
Structure of Japanese Society Previously, Japan had followed the feudal system with strict class rules. Japanese citizens now had the freedom to change their social class, where they lived, and their occupations. This changed the lives of people in all of the different social classes. It affected the lives of the samurai. Western style military was taking over, so they were eventually eliminated from the social hierarchy. Because of this, the government allowed them to become farmers, business owners, and trades people.
Structure (Education) -Education was a main social system that changed during modernization. In the Edo period, school was only for children of people in higher classes. -Now it was mandatory for all children to take. - It was designed to break down class identities which helped raise the standard of living in Japan. - The government taught values such as national identity and loyalty to the Emperor. -This helped unite Japan and make them a stronger nation
Structure (Women) - Women of Japan were given the same rights as men, but were not treated as equals. - Not until 1946 that they were given the right to vote and were allowed to choose their occupation, spouse, and they could inherit and own property using their own names. - Females were even encouraged to go to school, which gave them the same opportunities as educated men of the time. These changes affected Japanese worldview towards women.
The growth of Japanese militarism, nationalism and imperialism (Militarism) - Refers to the ideology in the Empire of Japan that militarism should dominate the political and social life of the nation, and that the strength of the military is equal to the strength of a nation. - The military had a strong influence on Japanese society from the Meiji Restoration. Almost all leaders in Japanese society during the Meiji period (whether in the military, politics or business) were ex-samurai or descendants of samurai, and shared a set of values and outlooks.
Japanese militarism, nationalism and imperialism (Imperialism) - Japan’s imperial expansion in the 1930s was due to the long-term view taken by the country’s military elite. - The 1930s marked the high point of Japan’s pre-World War II empire, when Imperial Japan’s territory stretched from mainland China to Micronesia. Japan’s empire would grow even larger during World War II, extending almost as far south as Australia, which Japan directly attacked in 1942 and 1943. But after Japan’s defeat in the summer of 1945 the country was occupied and stripped of its imperial possessions.
The growth of Japanese militarism, nationalism and imperialism (Militarism Continued) - Had possession of Taiwan since 1895; Russo-Japanese War of 1905 secured Japanese influence in the Manchuria region of mainland China; 1910, Japan formally annex Korea; [WW1 1919] Gained former German territories of Tsingtao and some Micronesian islands. - Industrial Japan also favored the expansion of the country’s empire because of the availability of raw materials. Japan established plantations in its colonial territories – helped develop commercial side of Japan’s economy. {side note: international trade eventually drew Japan into World War II when the United States threatened to cut off oil supplies in 1941}
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