Biology B2

Holly Bamford
Flashcards by Holly Bamford, updated more than 1 year ago
Holly Bamford
Created by Holly Bamford about 6 years ago


A-Level Biology (Biology) Flashcards on Biology B2, created by Holly Bamford on 03/22/2015.

Resource summary

Question Answer
What does a nucleus do? Controls the activities of the cell Contains genes Carry out instructions for making new cells
What does Cytoplasm do? most chemical reactions needed for life take place here
What does the cell membrane do? controls the passage of substances into and out of the cell
What do the mitochondria do? oxygen is used here and the energy from respiration is released
A-Cell Membrane B-Cytoplasm C-Nucleus D-Mitochondria E-Ribosome F-Chloroplast G-Vacuole H-Cell Wall
What is found only in a plant cell and not an animal cell? Cell Wall Vacuole Chloroplast
What are some types of specialised cells? Fat cells Cone Cells Root hair cells Sperm Cells
What is diffusion? The movement of molecules from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration
What affects the rate of diffusion? Difference in concentration
What is a tissue? a group of cells with a similar structure and function.
What is an organ? Organs are made of tissues
What organs form the digestive system? Mouth, stomach, liver, gall bladder, bile duct, small intestine, large intestine, pancreas
What are the plant organs? stems roots and leaves
What is the equation for photosynthesis? carbon dioxide + Water > glucose + oxygen (+Light Energy)
What are the limiting factors of photosynthesis? CO2 Concentation Light intensity Temperature
What do plants do with the glucose they make? use it for respiration convert insoluble starch for storage to produce fats and oils for storage to produce cellulose for use in the cells and cell walls.
How do plants store food? Glucose is converted to starch
How can we control the environment in which plants are grown? it can be artificially control so that the optimum temp. CO2 concentration and light intensity is met.
What factors affect the distribution of organisms in their natural environment? -temperature -nutrients -light intensity -water availability -CO2 & O2 avaliability
What is a quadrat? is the simplest way to sample an area
What is a protein? molecules made up of long chains of amino acids
What do proteins do? act as: structural components of tissues hormones antibodies catalysts
What is an enzyme? A biological catalyst
How does temperature affect enzymes? As the temperature increases so does the rate of reaction, until the optimum temperature were it works best and then if the temperature continues to increase can denature the active site.
Were are digestive enzymes made? In special cells in the glands and in the lining of the gut.
How are enzymes involved in the digestion of your food? Different enzymes catalyse the breakdown of carbs fats proteins into smaller soluble molecules.
Why does the stomach contain HCl? Enzymes in the stomach work pest in acidic conditions
Why is bile important in digestion? bile neutralises acid and emulsifier fats.
What do biological detergents contain? Protease and lipase
What is aerobic respiration? glucose+oxygen->carbon dioxide+water(+energy)
Were in the cells does respiration take place? In the mitochondria
Why do mitochondria have folded inner membranes? to create a large surface area for maximum respiration
How does the body respond to the increased demands for oxygen during exercise? increased heart rate glycogen is converted to glucose blood flow to muscles increases.
What is anaerobic respiration? glucose->lactic acid
What is mitosis? the cell division in normal body cells-producing two identical cells
What is meiosis? cell division where the chromosome number is reduced by half
How do new species rise? When two populations become isolated
How do populations become isolated? When they are separated geographically
What alleles are selected in a new environment? alleles are selected that increase successful breeding in the new enviroment
How does speciation take place in an isolated population? when an isolated population becomes so different from the original population that interbreeding can no longer take place.
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