GCSE History B: Warfare in Britain PART 1: 50AD --> 1350

James Jolliffe
Flashcards by James Jolliffe, updated more than 1 year ago
James Jolliffe
Created by James Jolliffe over 5 years ago
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Get ready to learn all about warfare between 50AD and 1350!!!

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Question Answer
What were the two types of Roman soldiers? Legionnaires and Auxilleries
Who were the Medici? Specially trained soldiers to care for soldiers on the battlefield.
What is a gladius? A Roman short stabbing sword
What is a Pilum? A Roman spear
How many years did Roman soldiers sign up for? 25 years
What sort of tests did Romans have to pass to become a soldier? - Medical tests - Intelligence tests - Eyesight tests - Height requirement
Roman tactics... Romans liked to fight in open spaces, they would use archers and ballistas first, followed by an infantry drive and then the cavalry
What weapons did Celts use? Spears and axes, wooden shields covered in leather.
Why did Celts paint their bodies? To frighten the enemy!
Were the Celts a permanent army? No, and therefore, they were not well drilled/trained.
Celtic tactics... Individual glory was more important than teamwork. They attacked as a mass.
Where did Boudicca attack before Watling Street (the 3 places). Colchester, St Albans and London
The Battle of Watling Street - PART 1: At the beginning of the battle, where were the two armies positioned? The Britons spread out across the plain. The Romans, led by Suetonius Paulinus chose a good spot with a wood behind them, preventing an attack from the rear and at the head of a narrow gorge.
The Battle of Watling Street - PART 2: What were the two armies first move? The Celts used their normal tactic, which was a mass attack at one point. The Romans set up with a volley of spears, which was meant to disrupt the enemy.
The Battle of Watling Street - PART 3: What did the Romans do next? The Infantry then drove forward forming a wedge shape and protected by their shields. They advanced, stabbing through gaps in their shield wall.
The Battle of Watling Street - PART 4: What made the fighting difficult for the Celts then? They were so tightly packed that they were unable to use their slashing long swords and axes.
The Battle of Watling Street - PART 5: How did the Romans finish off the Celts? The Roman Cavalry attacked from the sides and rear of the Britons, surrounding them and cutting them down.
Fill in the missing gaps: The _______ Romans defeated the ________+ Britons. (_______ Britons were reportedly killed). 10,000 200,000 80.000
Fill in the missing gaps: Harold had _____ professional soldiers called ____________. He also had another _____ who fought for him, they weren't permanent, and known as the _____. 2000, Housecarls 5,500, Fyrd
Fill in the missing gaps: William had _______ knights, ______ infantry and ______ archers. 2000 (Knights) 4000 (Infantry) 2000 (Archers)
What type of army was William's? A Feudal army
How did Saxons and Normans travel? By foot.
How were: Saxon Housecarls armed? The Fyrd armed? Saxon Housecarls - Used swords and 5 foot long battle axes. They wore mail shirts and metal helmets. The Fyrd - Mainly farmers who had no special equipment. Most would carry a spear and a shield.
How were: Norman Knights armed? Norman Archers armed? Norman Knights - Well armed with lances, spears and swords, they also had mail shirts and metal helmets. Norman Archers - had short bows which had a range of 100 yards.
Before the Battle of Hastings - PART 1: How was Harold unlucky before Hastings? He was forced to fight Harald Hardraada in the north and his soldier had to march 200 miles to Stamford Bridge.
Before the Battle of Hastings - PART 2: What two mistakes did Harold make after he defeated Harald? - Didn't give his soldiers a share of the loot, and so many of archers left him. - Marched his tired and smaller army back down the country, to fight William, instead of waiting for William to come to him.
The Battle of Hastings - PART 1: Where did Harold position himself at the beginning of the battle of Hastings? What was the Saxons sole tactic? At the top of Senlac Hill. To stop the progress of Normans, by holding their shield wall.
The Battle of Hastings - PART 2: Who was at the centre of Harold's shield wall, and who were on the flanks? Centre = Full time soldiers/Housecarls Flanks = Members of the Fyrd
The Battle of Hastings - PART 3: What did the Normans do at first to try and weaken the Saxon's shield wall? What was this followed by? First = Attack from arrows Followed by = infantry attack and then a cavalry charge
The Battle of Hastings - PART 4: What did the Normans then do, which led to the Saxon's defeat? They feigned retreats, to successfully lure down the Saxon shield wall, where there were led of and slaughtered. Arrows were also fired high above the shield wall to rain down on the Saxons.
What was medical care for soldiers like in the Battle of Hastings? Very poor. Few if any medical facilities or staff were available for either side. The injured were left on the battlefield and often died of blood loss or infection.
Fill in the missing gaps: In the Early Middle Ages, Knights had to fight for __ days each year, as part of the _______ _______. 45 (days) Feudal System
Why did many men go to fight in the Crusades? Various reasons including the forgiveness of their sins and entry to heaven, also the prospect of gaining riches through plunder.
In the Crusades, did soldiers have to supply their own weaponry? Yes, these weapons included swords, Halberd, mace and short bows.
What were Mangonels? Siege engines that catapulted objects.
What was Greek Fire? Flaming Liquid hurled in pots by catapults, which was very hard to put out, it even burned on water!
The Siege of Acre - PART 1: How did the Siege of Acre follow a TYPICAL SIEGE PATTERN? It started with an encirclement of Acre, which aimed to cut off supplies to the town. Followed by Battery, which involved trying to break down the town walls, by using Trebuchets or Mangonels.
The Siege of Acre - PART 2: What was used to try and collapse the walls? Tunnelling
The Siege of Acre - PART 3: What would then be used to attack the town? Siege towers and Battering rams
The Siege of Acre - PART 4: How was Saladin's defense tactics typical as well? He sent supplies by Sea to try and relieve Acre, and harassed the attackers by cutting off their supplies.
The Siege of Acre - PART 5: What was fired at the attacking siege towers? Greek fire
The Siege of Acre - PART 6: What tactic was used when the town of Acre knew it was going to be defeated? Negotiation. They surrendered, paying a ransom of 2000 prisoners and 200,000 gold pieces.
The Siege of Acre - EXTRA: What was Richard I's involvement in the Siege of Acre? He joined the siege in June 1191, with an army of 8000. His initial attempts to scare the wall failed.
The Siege of Acre - EXTRA: What were the names of the 2 huge siege engines that began to fracture the wall? 'God's own sling' and 'Evil neighbour'
The Siege of Acre - EXTRA: How long was the Siege of Acre, and how many of the Besieger's lives were lost? 2 years 10,000 lives
The Siege of Acre - EXTRA: What were dead bodies used for in the Siege? To fill Acre's moat
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