GCSE Science - B1 - You and Your Genes - Genes, Chromosomes and DNA

GeorgeHaines
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GCSE Science - B1 - You and Your Genes - Genes, Chromosomes and DNA

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GeorgeHaines
Created by GeorgeHaines about 4 years ago
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GCSE Science - B1 - You and Your Genes - Genes, Chromosomes and DNA
1 Genes are Instructions for Cells
1.1 Each gene is a code for making a certain protein. Proteins are the building blocks for cells.. Having different versions of proteins means that we end up with different characteristics.
1.2 1.
1.2.1 Some proteins are structural proteins. They're part of things like skin, hair and blood.
1.3 2.
1.3.1 Other Proteins are functional proteins. For example, enzymes are proteins that help with digestion by breaking down food molecules - amylase is a digestive enzyme that breaks down starch
2 An Organism's Genotype Describes the Genes It's Got
2.1 1.
2.1.1 An organism's genotype is all of the genes it has. The characteristics that an organism displays are called its phenotype.
2.2 2.
2.2.1 Some characteristics, e.g. dimples, are controlled only by genes. This can just be one gene, or quite often the characteristic is controlled by several genes working together, e.g. eye colour.
2.3 3.
2.3.1 Other characteristics, e.g. scars are controlled only by environmental factors. They don't have anything to do with genes.
2.4 4.
2.4.1 There are also characteristics that are controlled by both genes and environmental factors. For example, weight - if both your parents are skinny, you'll probably be skinny.

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