Coastal Zone Glossary

Clare Magor
Flashcards by , created over 4 years ago

GCSE Geography (Paper 1) Flashcards on Coastal Zone Glossary, created by Clare Magor on 03/26/2015.

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Clare Magor
Created by Clare Magor over 4 years ago
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Question Answer
Fetch The distance of open water over which the wind can blow
Beach A deposit of sand or shingle at the coast, often found at the head of the bay
Crest The top of a wave
Swash The forward movement of a wave up a beach
Backwash The backward movement of water down a beach when a wave is broken
Constructive wave A powerful wave with a strong swash that surges up a beach
Destructive wave A wave formed by a local storm that crashes down onto a beach and has a powerful backwash
Rockfall The collapse of a cliff face or the fall of individual rocks from a cliff
Hydraulic power The sheer power of waves
Corrasion The effect of rocks being flung at the cliff by powerful waves
Solution The dissolving of rocks, such as limestone and chalk
Attrition The knocking together of pebbles, making them gradually smaller and smoother
Traction Heavy particles rolled along the seabed
Solution The transport of dissolved chemicals
Saltation A hopping movement of pebbles along the seabed
Suspension Lighter particles carried (suspended) within the water
Longshore drift The transport of sediment along a stretch of coastline caused by waves approaching the beach at an angle
Headland A promontory of land jutting out into the sea
Bay A broad coastal inlet often with a beach
Wave-cut platform A wide, gently sloping rocky surface at the foot a cliff
Wave-cut notch A small indentation (or notch) cut into a cliff roughly at the level of high tide caused by concentrated marine erosion at this level
Cave A hollowed-out feature at the base of an eroding cliff
Arch A headland that has been partly broken through by the sea to form a thin-roofed arch
Stack An isolated pinnacle of rock sticking out of the sea
Spit A finger of new land made of sand or shingle, jutting out into the sea from the coast
Salt marsh Low-lying coastal wetland mostly extending between high and low tide
Bar A spit that has grown across a bay
Shoreline Management Plan (SMP) An integrated coastal management plan for a stretch of coastline in England and Wales
Hard engineering Building artificial structures such as sea walls aimed at controlling natural processes
Soft engineering A sustainable approach to managing the coast without using artificial structures
Managed retreat Allowing controlled flooding of low-lying coastal areas or cliff collapse in areas where the value of the land is low
Pioneer plant The first plant species to colonise an area that is well adapted to living in a harsh environment
Vegetation succession A sequence of vegetation species colonising an environment