Chapter 2 : Key Terms & Definitions

Jo Hart
Flashcards by Jo Hart, updated more than 1 year ago
Jo Hart
Created by Jo Hart about 6 years ago


system analysis & design

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List and briefly describe the five activities of systems analysis.  Gather detailed information – meet with users to understand the business processes and needs  Define requirements – document findings by building models such as use case diagram and class diagram  Prioritize requirements – Decide which requirements (such as use cases) should be done first  Develop user-interface dialogs – work with the users to define exactly how they will use the system and what interactions with the system are required  Evaluate requirements with users – ensure that the requirements are complete, accurate, and prioritized correctly
What are three types of models? Textual models, graphical models, and mathematical models
What is the difference between functional requirements and non-functional requirements? Functional requirements describe the business rules that must be supported by the new system, while non-functional requirements are the system characteristics such as speed, throughput, response time, and security. Both are important.
What are the benefits of doing vendor research during information-gathering activities? It can inform the current team and users of new ideas and possibly more effective methods The team can possibly find out about more current state-of-the-art solutions that vendors have created. It may even be cheaper, faster, and more effective to purchase a solution instead of building.
What types of stakeholders should you include in fact finding? Both internal and external stakeholders. Internal stakeholders would include operational people who work with the system and executive stakeholders who may receive executive reports, or depend on the success of the system. External stakeholders may include customers or partner organizations, who also receive information directly from the system. At the executive level, external stakeholders may be investors or regulators.
Describe the open-items list and then explain why it is important. During fact finding activities, and in fact throughout all the project, some issues can be answered immediately, but others cannot be answered immediately. Some questions may not be answered because more research may need to be done, or other items may need to be decided first, or the user procedure has not be finalized, etc. Those items will need to be tracked so that they are not left out of the solution system. The open-items list provides that tracking function by noting the item, assigning a responsible person, and tracking the completion of the open item.
List and briefly describe the six information gathering techniques. Information gathering techniques include  Interview users and stakeholders – the most effective for information gathering, but the most expensive  Distribute questionnaires – good for finding overview or summary information from many people  Review current system documentation – good for understanding current processes  Observe current business processes – also good for understanding the user's processes and requirements  Research vendor solutions – good for generating new ideas and learning what already has been done  Collect user comments – good for finding out about problems with current processes
What is the purpose of an activity diagram? One purpose of an activity diagram is to document current user workflows. Activity diagrams are often called workflow diagrams. They can be used to document a user procedure as he/she interacts with the computer system.
How would you ensure that you get all the right information during an interview session?  Ensure that all stakeholders are identified and included in the requirements definition activities.  Review every existing form and report to make sure that all information needs are understood.  Identify and understand every business activity. Be sure that all business procedures have been discussed.  Ensure that all exception conditions have been identified and associated processing has been defined.  Maintain an open-items list and ensure that all items are resolved.
technology architecture – a set of computing hardware, network hardware and topology, and system software employed by an organization
application architecture – the organization and construction of software resources to implement an organization’s information systems
system requirements – the activities a system must perform or support and the constraints that the system must meet
functional requirements – the activities that the system must perform
nonfunctional requirements – system characteristics other than the activities it must perform or support
usability requirements – operational characteristics related to users, such as the user interface, related work procedures, online help, and documentation
reliability requirements – requirements that describe system dependability
performance requirements – operational characteristics related to measures of workload, such as throughput and response time
security requirements – requirements that describe how access to the application will be controlled and how data will be protected during storage and transmission
FURPS+ – an extension of FURPS  Functions  Usability  Reliability  Performance  Security  + Design constraints ◦ Implementation ◦ Interface ◦ Physical ◦ Support
design constraints – restrictions to which the hardware and software must adhere
design constraints – restrictions to which the hardware and software must adhere
implementation requirements – constraints such as required programming languages and tools, documentation method and level of detail, and a specific communication protocol for distributed components
interface requirements – required interactions among systems
physical requirements – characteristics of hardware such as size, weight, power consumption, and operating conditions
supportability requirements – how a system is installed, configured, monitored, and updated
Model – representation of some aspect of a system
textual models – text-based system models such as memos, reports, narratives, and lists
graphical models – system models that use pictures and other graphical elements
mathematical models – system models that describes requirements numerically or as mathematical expressions
Unified Modeling Language (UML) – standard set of model constructs and notations defined by the Object Management Group
Stakeholders – persons who have an interest in the successful implementation of the system
internal stakeholders – persons within the organization who interact with the system or have a significant interest in its operation or success
external stakeholders – persons outside the organization’s control and influence who interact with the system or have a significant interest in its operation or success
operational stakeholders – persons who regularly interact with a system in the course of their jobs or lives
executive stakeholders – persons who don’t interact directly with the system but who either use information produced by the system or have a significant financial or other interest in its operation and success
client – person or group that provides the funding for a system development project
open-ended questions – questions that encourage discussion or explanation
closed-ended questions – questions that elicit specific facts Gender Age Income
Workflow – sequence of processing steps that completely handles one business transaction or customer request
activity diagram – describes user (or system) activities, the person who does each activity, and the sequential flow of these activities
synchronization bar – activity diagram component that either splits a control path into multiple concurrent paths or recombines concurrent paths
swimlane – heading activity diagram column containing all activities for a single agent or organizational unit
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