Muna Dirie Chemistry Unit 1

Muna Abdi
Flashcards by Muna Abdi, updated more than 1 year ago
Muna Abdi
Created by Muna Abdi over 6 years ago
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Chemistry, C1, Flashcards

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Question Answer
What was the Earth like many, million years ago? Firstly the Earth was molten and full of volcanic activity, the Earth cooled down and the crust was formed. The volcanoes emitted gases such as: Co2, H2O and Nitrogen. The oceans formed with the water vapour condensed.
What happened after 2 billion years? Plants and micro-plants developed, during photosynthesis, the plants took in the carbon dioxide, and produced oxygen.
How did the CO2 levels decrease over the years? The more plants, the less oxygen, (photosynthesis). When the plants died, and were buried under layers of sediment, the CO2 became locked up in sedimentary rocks as insoluble carbonates i.e. Fossil Fuels.
What is the earths composition? The atmosphere contains: 78% Nitrogen, 21% Oxygen, 1% Argon/ water vapour & other gases and 0.03% Carbon dioxide.
What are pollutants? Pollutants are chemicals, that can potentially harm the environment and our health. E.g. Acid rain affecting statues...
What are Hydrocarbons? Hydrocarbons is the element where it is made up of only Carbon and Hydrogen particles.
In which ways can pollutants harm us? They can harm us in two ways, directly E.g. Carbon Monoxide. Also pollutants can harm us indirectly by destroying our environment, e.g. Sulfur Dioxide destroying plants, statues and fish...
How do you make molecules? When atoms join together.
What happens in a chemical reaction? The (reactants) atoms rearrange themselves to form different chemicals, which are called the products.
What are fossil fuels? Many Hydrocarbons are fossil fuels, which are from the remains of dead plants and animals from millions of years ago.
What is combustion? Combustion is a chemical reaction, when a fuel reacts with oxygen and energy is released. Because the fuel reacts with the oxygen, it is a form of oxidation.
What is Carbon Monoxide and what are its dangers? Carbon monoxide is a very toxic gas, it's made up of only one oxygen and carbon atom. It happens during incomplete combustion. It attacks the victim by attaching itself to the persons hemoglobin, and prevents your blood from carrying oxygen.
What are Carbon Particulates? These are tiny particles of carbon produced during incomplete combustion. They float and them deposit into the buildings and floors as soot.
How is sulfur dioxide made? It is made when fuel burns, the sulfur burns too, which then combines with the oxygen, producing sulfur dioxide.
How does sulfur dioxide harm us and how is it removed within the atmosphere? Sulfur dioxide is removed from our atmosphere in the form of acid rain. SO2 can harm us for example, the fish in the rivers and killing animals and destroying buildings.
Where is nitrogen pollution formed? Nitrogen pollution is formed from the nitrogen in the air, when the fuel is burnt.
How do nearby atoms react in the air? They react because fossil fuels burn at such a high temperature, that the atoms react.
How does nitrogen monoxide form? Nitrogen monoxide forms when nitrogen and oxygen in the air are exposed to a very high temperature. E.g. In car engines.
Where is nitrogen dioxide formed? When the nitrogen monoxide is formed, more oxygen appears and this produces nitrogen dioxide.
Why are nitrogen oxides similar to sulfur dioxide? This is because when they (nitrogen oxides) are formed, the go up in the atmosphere. Until they react with the moisture of the clouds. Which then produces Dilute Nitric Acid which falls on the Earth as acid rain.
What is wet-scrubbing? This a method in where sulfur dioxide can be removed from flue gases by reacting with an alkali. There are two types.
What is the first way of wet-scrubbing? The first way is seawater, the sulfur dioxide dissolves into water, producing carbon dioxide, water and dissolved sulfate.
Is there an alternative way to wet-scrubbing? There is also Alkaline slurry, (calcium oxide in water). The slurry is sprayed onto the gases, and the sulfur dioxide reacts with the calcium oxide. Then calcium sulfide a solid waste product is formed.
How does the government help reduce the CO2 emissions? The government now runs M.O.T tests, and installs Catalytic Converters in every car.
What do Catalytic Converters do? Catalytic Converters help reduce Carbon Monoxide within a car, the C.C converts the Carbon Monoxide in Carbon Dioxide by adding Oxygen, this is called Oxidation. Also it converts Nitrogen Monoxide into harmless gases such as Nitrogen and Oxygen.
What are biofuels? Biofuels are renewable energy sources, that are made from either plans or waste. They only produce Co2 and Water when burned. Biofuels are Carbon Neutral as the plants used give out more oxygen than when the actual fuel is burned.
What is a disadvantage for biofuels? Biofuels need a lot of energy and plants, the plants they use when taken down can destroy natural habitats.
How does MOT reduce pollution? MOT Testing, measure the amount of polluting emissions, and they have to be within the legal limit.
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