Textiles

Heidi C
Flashcards by Heidi C, updated more than 1 year ago
Heidi C
Created by Heidi C almost 6 years ago
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OCR Texiles 2015 flash cards

Resource summary

Question Answer
What kinds of colour and design equipment are there? Batik Screen printing Fabric crayons and pens Transfer printing Embroidery
What is a carbon footprint? A measure of the amount of carbon dioxide produced directly or indirectly by an individual or a product.
What PHYSICAL finishing processes are there? Brushing Calendering (Passing fabrics between heated rollers to give them a smooth finish) Laminating
What BIOLOGICAL finishes are there? Biostoning (to give a worn look) Biopolishing (to soften and give a polished look)
What CHEMICAL finishes are there? Mercerising (fabric is placed in sodium hydroxide solution so it swells and becomes more shiny, absorbent and strong) Waterproofing Flame-proofing Anti-static/Anti-felting finish Crease/shrink resistant Bleaching
Problems with dying and finishing processes that use lots of chemicals It produces lots of chemical waste Requires energy to drive the machinery Uses and contaminates large volumes of water
Solutions to using dying and finishing process that use lots of chemicals Use natural and cold water dyes (as they require less energy in processing) also reduce the need for very dark dyes Use renewable sources of energy e.g wind Use naturally coloured yarn (to eliminate dying processes) Develop finishing processes so that they do not require as much energy Use fabrics that already have the fabric needed e.g. lyocell is resistant to shrinking
What is design obsolescence? The fashion industry encourages people to continuously update their wardrobe with the latest trends (even though their clothes are still in good conditions). This can be called planned obsolescence or design obsolescence and it generates a vast amount of waste.
What is primary recycling? The product can be recycled in its current state e.g. taken to a charity shop.
What is secondary recycling? The product is torn/shredded/melted/ground before being reused e.g woollen garments can be shredded and be reused as stuffing for bedding
What is tertiary recycling? Products can be broken down and reformulated e.g. PET plastic bottles can be broken down into fibers and then spun into polyester to make fleeces to make duvets.
What are the befits of recycling? Save energy Save raw materials It reduces the need to manufacture new products
What are the 6 R's? Recycle Re-use Reduce Refuse Rethink Repair
FSC Forestry Stewardship Council Applies to wood and other wood products (e.g. paper) to assure the customer that they meet the social, economical and ecological needs of present and future generations.
European Eco Label Applies to to products and services where where steps have been taken to minimise the environmental impact of their whole life cycle.
The European Energy Label Showing the energy consumption of appliances.
Confidence in Textiles/ The Oeko-Tex Label Fabrics that are free from harmful substances (tested against the Okeo-Tex Standard 100).
Fairtrade mark Provides a better deal for developing countries. Gives a guarantee to consumers that farmers and workers have been paid a fair and stable price.
Mobius loop The number in the middle indicates what % of the product is made from recycled materials
This label identifies the type of recyclable plastic used (this example represents PET)
What are fabrics made from? Fibres
What are staple fibers? Short fibers
What are filament fibers? Long fibers
Where do natural fibers come from? Animals e.g. wool, silk, camel hair etc. Plants e.g. Cotton, linen, hemp etc
What are synthetic fibers? They are man made fibers made from the by products of oil.
How are individual weak fibers made stronger? Multiple fibers are twisted together (SPINNING).
S twist (fibers)
Z twist (fibers)
WEFT KNITTED FABRIC Horizontal (left to right) rows to knitting V-shaped loops on the face Interlocking loops above and below each other which hold the fabric togther
WARP KNITTED FABRIC Interlocking loops that run vertically (up and down) the fabric Less elastic/ firmer fabric Keep their shape well Lightweight
WOVEN FABRICS Fray easily strongest along grain of fabric Stronger closest to the weave Selvedge doesn't fray Lacks elasticity
What are the properties of latex/rubber? Can be formed/shaped into seamless clothing.
What are the properties of cotton? Cheap, strong, cool, easily creases.
What are the properties of wool? Soft, hard wearing, insulating, warm
What are the properties of silk? Expensive, smooth texture, good drape, cool, strong, elastic, absorbent, warm
What are the properties of viscose? Cheap, light, not very strong, very versatile, very absorbant
What are the properties of polyester? Crease resistant, elastic, hard wearing, good material to make a blend
What are the properties of Elastane (lycra)? Elastic, crease resistant, hard wearing, durable
What are the properties of Kelvar? Extremely hard wearing (5x stronger than steel), can be stiffened of softened using chemicals, used in protective clothing or bullet-proof vests
What are the properties of Nomex? Insulating, heat and flame resistant, used in firefighter uniforms
What are smart materials? Materials that can respond to external stimuli e.g. temperature. OR Be activated by internal or external power sources.
If materials are sewn with photochromic threads or dyed with photochromic dyes, how does the material respond? The material changes colour with light.
If materials are dyed with thermochromic dyes, how does the material respond? The product changes colour with heat intensity.
Name a way smart technology can be applied to textiles Photochromic threads and thermochromic dyes. Embroidered images and text combined with electronics to create a pillow, cushion etc. that has a function e.g. a keyboard or remote control. Fabrics on car seats that are embedded with interactive panels, memory features and embroidered or printed controls.
What are the categories into which smart textiles can be divided into? (4) Conductive textiles Power assisted textiles Communication textiles Medical textiles
What is block printing? A wooden block with a design cut in relief (standing out) to it. Then a the design is 'stamped' onto the fabric. Block printing is suitable for any type of fabric.
What is stencilling? The design is cut out of the card and then using a paint brush or sponge paint is applied to the fabric through the card. The paint is only applied to the parts of the fabric where the card was cut out.
What is screen printing or silk-screen printing? A stencil of the design is placed a the nylon screen on a wooden frame. The dye is put on top of the screen then pushed through using a squeegee. This technique uses a different stencil and different screen for each colour. Machine screen printing uses all the same principals.
What is engraved roller printing? A series of metal rollers have a design engraved onto them. Dye or pigment solution is pushed through a fine mesh on each roller, this produces a design where the size of the design is determined by the circumference of the roller.
What is sublimation printing? A design is printed onto sublimation paper. HEATED ROLLERS transfer the design onto the fabric. This only works on fabrics that have 50% or more synthetic content.
What is computer transfer printing? An image is created/designed on a computer then printed onto transfer paper. The design is then transferred onto the fabric by applying HEAT using an iron or heat press to the back of the image.
What is digital printing? The whole process is completed using a computer (design and printing). You can create complex designs easily and quickly. Used in industry for sampling and to make bespoke (one-off) fabrics/garments.
What is the tool used to apply the hot wax in batik? Tjanting tool
How is felt made? The fibers are matted together using soap and water.
What are 4 temporary methods of construction? Pinning Tacking Basting Tailors tacking
Types of machine stitching Straight stitch (lock stitch) Single step zigzag Double step zigzag Chain stitch Overlock
What is a plain seam? It is one of the flattest seams and is suitable for all fabrics. However the edges of the fabric need to be finished/neatened to stop them fraying.
What is a double stitched seam? Self neatening seam. Strong - used a lot on shirts, trousers, overalls and hard wearing garments.
What is a french seam? For lightweight clothing, lingerie and children's nightwear (best suited for lightweight fabrics such as chiffon). Strong All edges are enclosed (no finishing is required).
What is overlock stitch? It can be a 2, 3, or 4 thread overlocked seam. Trims and neatens the edge whist also stitching. Requires overlocker machine. Can be used on inside of garment for neatness or on the outside for decoration.
What is COSHH? Control of Substances Hazardous to Health
What does a gantt chart show? The timeline for a project The seperate stages/tasks that need to be completed The time allocated for each stage The order work (the stages) should be completed in They can be used to compare estimated and actual timings.
What is CAA? Computer Aided Administration
What is CAD? Computer Aided Design
What is CAM? Computer Aided Machinery
What is CIM? Computer Integrated Manufacture
What information is usually found on a textiles label? Fibre content Chemical names Country of origin Product details Safety advice Care instructions
What is the trade descriptions act? It is illegal to make false claims about a product
What is the Sales of Goods Act? Products must match their description, be of satisfactory quality and be fit for purpose.
What is the Weights and Measures Act? It is illegal to sell products that are short-measured i.e. weigh less than the amount on the label.
What is the 'Textiles Products (Identification of Fibre Content) Regulations' Act? It is a legal requirement to state the fibre content of a fabric on a label, in descending order using chemical names.
What do all of these symbols mean? 1) (3 dots) Wash at 50c 2) (2 lines) Delicate/Gentle, wash at 30c 3) Hand wash 4) (1 Line) Permanent press, wash at 40c 5) Wash at 60c 6) Do not wash
What are these symbols? 1) Any bleach can be used 2) Only non-chlorine bleach can be used 3) Do not bleach
What are these symbols? 1) Drying 2) Drip dry 3) Normal tumble dry
What are these symbols? 1) Line dry/ Hang to dry 2) Tumble dry on high heat 3) Do not tumble dry
What are these symbols? 1) In the shade (added to drip dry, line dry or dry flat) 2) Tumble dry on medium heat 3) Do not dry (used with do not wash)
What are these symbols? 1) Dry flat 2) Tumble dry on low heat
What are these symbols? 1) Iron on low heat 2) Iron on medium heat 3) Iron on high heat 4) Do not iron with steam 5) Do not iron
What are these symbols? 1) Dry clean 2) Dry clean using any solvent 3) Dry clean using petroleum solvent only 4) Dry clean using any solvent except Trichloroethylene 5) Do not dry clean
What do these symbols mean? 1) Short cycle 2) Reduced moisture 3) Low heat 4) No steam finishing
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