OCR - Sociology

Heidi C
Flashcards by Heidi C, updated more than 1 year ago
Heidi C
Created by Heidi C over 5 years ago


A Levels GCSE Flashcards on OCR - Sociology, created by Heidi C on 04/30/2015.

Resource summary

Question Answer
What is relativity? The idea that norms and values are specific to a particular situation, social group or society. What is 'normal' in one situation could be abnormal in another.
What is a value? A commonly held belief about what is right and wrong. What is important to achieve in life and what is valuable in society.
What is ascribed status? Your position in society based on things you are born with e.g. gender, ethnicity e.c.t.
What is achieved status? Your position that is earned from your efforts or choices in life e.g. your job, education etc.
What is socialisation? The process of learning the correct behavior, norms and values in society.
What is primary socialisation? Learning the basic norms of how to be a member of society e.g. walking, talking etc.
What is secondary socialisation? The lifelong process of learning the norms and values of society, beginning around age 5 and continuing until we die.
What are the agents of socialisation? Family Media Peer groups Education Work
What is the peer group and why do people feel peer pressure? The peer group is people of the same age, with similar interests. May people feel peer pressure as they feel the need to fit in.
What is a subculture? A smaller culture within a culture, a group of people within a society with their own set of norms and values e.g. punks, goths, emos, religion etc.
What is a role? A part you play in society, the set of norms that go with your status. The way you are expected to behave depending on your status.
What is manipulation? Adults saying and doing things that encourage children to behave in a way that is appropriate for their gender e.g. "daddy's little angel" vs "brave little soldier"
What is canalisation? Parents give children gender specific toys etc. that are 'normal' for their gender, For example dolls, prams, toy kitchens and ironing boards vs toy soldiers, footballs, cars
What is the difference between formal and informal curriculum? Formal - Subjects that are taught, studied and examined in school e.g. Maths. Informal - The norms and values that a school teaches children through day-to-day school life, not as part of the formal curriculum.
What was Aries study in 1962? Youth He believed that childhood was and invention as the concept of 'childhood' has changed over time.
Arguments for why childhood is disappearing A survey found that at 14 years of age 90% of girls were wearing some kind of make up. (Magazines) Bliss and Cosmo contain adult features and give vouchers for gel nails, spray tans and informs girls on how to get a boyfriend. Children commit more adult style crimes than in the past (e.g. drugs and violence).
Arguments for why childhood isn't disappearing A lot of children's charities (like NSPCC) exist, this shows that children need protection as they cannot support themselves or fight for their own rights. Parents are expected to care for their children until they are at least 16. Many major retailers provide creches for kids while their parents shop.
Give an reason why youth could be a biological stage in life Youths experience mood changes due to hormones. Puberty. Youths around the world go through a period of emotional difficulty where they are irritable or unsure of themselves.
Give a reason why youth could be socially constructed Neil POSTMAN suggested that childhood is DISAPPEARING. Philippe ARIES suggested that childhood is an INVENTED concept that has changed over time (as society had developed). Margret MEAD argues that not all youths go through emotional difficulties. Different cultures have a range of rites of passage - ceremonies or trials where a young person has to prove they have left childhood behind.
What is the meant by the social construction of youth? It is thought that the age of youth is not the same across time and place - social factors affect when youth is, and what the norms of youth are.
Give an example of a rite of passage Cattle run (Ethiopia), land diving, passing you driving test, getting qualifications (e.g. GCSEs), getting a job, bar-mitzva, first alcoholic drink in a pub etc.
What is a formal agent of social control? Agents that only exist to control society.
What is an informal agent of social control? Agents that control and influence society, however social control is not their only function.
What was J Clarke's study in 1976? He researched skinhead culture and found that their anger was based around immigrants. he found that they were a very patriotic racist group.
GANGS What is territory? Gangs have an area of a town/city that they "own" or lay claim to, often linked to postcode boundaries. Graffiti may be used to tag or claim an area.
GANGS What is hierarchy? In a gang there is often a clear leader, and sometimes an organised structure of lieutenants who have power and influence in the gang then new or young members.
What was Hodkinson's study in 2002? (Goths) - He believed that the subculture is formed/based on real shared interests, not just the need to rebel.
What was McRobbie and Garber's study in 1976? The gendered subculture/BEDROOM SUBCULTURE - People join a subculture because of their gender (male/female).
What is an overt observation, give an advantage and a disadvantage? The sample that you are studying know that they are being watched/being studied. + You can take notes (so you are less likely to forget) - Observer effect
What is a covert observation, give an advantage and a disadvantage? The sample being studies does not know that they are being watched/being studied. + No observer effect (truthful behavior) - Unethical (invading privacy)
What is a participant observation, give an advantage and a disadvantage? As well as observing the groups behavior, the researcher takes part and tries to act like them. + You get an insight and understanding from their point of view - Could get too involved
What is non-participant observation, give an advantage and a disadvantage? The researcher watches and records what is happening, but does not get involved. + You can take notes (notes will be accurate) - Less insight into their point of view
What is the observer effect? The presence of an observer can change the behavior of the sample being studied, preventing researcher from seeing natural behavior.
When taking research what are the 2 types of research that you could create? Quantitative and Qualitative
What is qualitative and quantitative data? QUALITATIVE - In-depth descriptive data, usually presented in written form. High validity and low reliability. QUANTITATIVE - Number data that you can turn into graphs or statistics. High reliability and low validity.
What is validity and reliability? VAlidity - Very Accurate, and in-depth. REliability - Repeat Easily (even by another researcher).
What is BEDS? B- (Researcher)Bias E-Exaggeration D- Distortion S- Selection
What is CASTLE? C - Class A - Age S - Sex T - Time L - Location E - Ethnicity
Give an advantage of questionnaires Cheap, quick and easy to produce. Standardized questions means you can make generalizations. Can produce a large sample. lots of closed questions produce quantitative data. No face-to-face interaction means people may be more honest.
Gave a disadvantage of questionnaires Lots of closed questions means people cannot give detailed or accurate answers. No face-to-face interaction means that the researcher cannot clear up misunderstandings. Postal questionnaires may have a very low response rate (this may mean that the sample is no longer cross-sectional).
Identify a method of sampling Random Stratified Systematic Snowball
What is content analysis? Where a researcher looks at a media source and counts how many times a particular thing happens. This allows them to make comparisons. Content analysis is a type of secondary data.
What is primary data? Information that the researcher has collected themselves i.e. observations, interviews, questionnaires, content analysis etc.
What is secondary data? Information that is collected by someone else then used by the researcher.
What is situational deviance? Something is only seen as deviant in some situations, but not in others e.g. It is acceptable to be semi-nude at the beach but unacceptable to show off off too much skin at school or to the shops.
What is historical deviance? Something that is/was only deviant at a certain time in history e.g. it was legal for teachers to hit or smack pupils until 1987 in state school, though now it is illegal and considered unacceptable, in the past you would not have seen a male nurse or a female doctor a male nurse would have bee frowned upon for being in a 'female' job.
What is cross cultural deviance? Something that is deviant in some cultures but not in others e.g. In India it is normal to eat curry with your hands instead of a knife and fork.
What is role based deviance? Something that is (or isn't) deviant because of the person's role or job e.g. Fighting in public is not approved by most people, although if you are a boxer it is fine to fight in the ring, carrying and using weapons is both criminal and deviant unless your job allows (e.g. a soldier or policeman).
What is the point of punishment? Deterrence Protection Reform Retribution (punishment) Reparation
What is deterrence, protection and reform? Deterrence - Harsh punishments to put people off committing crime in the future. Protection - Keeping society safe from offenders. Reform - Helping offenders change their behavior so they don't commit crime in the future.
What is retribution (punishment) and reparation? Retribution (punishment) - Making the offender suffer for their actions Reparation - Giving something back to society or the victim for what they have done.
What does it take for a crime to become an official statistic? 1) Someone has to REALISE that a crime has taken place 2) Then the crime has to be REPORTED to the police 3) Finally the police have to decide weather it should be RECORDED as a crime. If it is recorded as a crime, it becomes part of the official statistics.
Reasons for why crime might not be reported Might not be important enough Victims believe that the police/cannot/will not do anything about it People see it as a private matter Victims embarrassed
Why might the police not record all crime? Crimes may not seem important enough to deal with May not be enough evidence to prove that a crime has taken place Different police forces may record crime differently e.g. burglary might be recorded as breaking and entering etc.
Are official statistics higher low in validity? Why? They are low in validity as they do not give an accurate or truthful picture into how much crime is really happening.
What is a victim survey? What are its advantages and disadvantages? It is a yearly survey for victims crimes. They are interviewed to find out about their experience. + Large sample, high validity, true picture of what crime is like in society - People under 16 are not interviewed, embarrassment may stop the truth (e.g. rape)
What is a self-report study? What are its advantages and disadvantages? It is a questionnaire that is done anonymously to find out what crimes different people have committed. + Anonymous, confidential, high in validity, find out what crimes people have committed - People may exaggerate (to impress), could be bias/untruthful, people do not usually want to talk about their criminal activity
Why do young people commit crime? (5 reasons) Peer pressure Labeling theory Subcultures Boredom Lack of social control
How can peer pressure cause youths to commit crime? There is a big stress on getting excitement Status frustration Peer groups are 1 of the most powerful agents of social control
How does the labeling theory cause youths to commit crime? CiCourel (1976) found that if someone looks and acts like a 'stereotypical' criminal, the police are more likely to stop, arrest and convict them. Young people have been 'labeled' as likely to commit crime so police watch them more carefully - they are more likely to be caught.
How do subcultures cause youths to commit crime? Many subculture views are different to the rest of mainstream society Some subcultures value violence, aggression and disrespecting society. They see this as a normal way to behave.
How does boredom cause young people to commit more crime? They have nothing do do (at night) They look for thrills and excitement (adrenaline rush)
How does a lack of social control cause young people to commit crime? Parents/Schools are not strict enough Parents do not impose control, they then get out of control, break the law and become criminal Young people are socialised without proper boundaries
How can social class cause people to commit crime? (SOCIALISATION AND SUBCULTURE) Some sociologists believe that different social classes are socialised differently. In their society it may be the criminal behavior that accepts them into that part of life. If a child has not been socialised to the norms, values and morals of society there will be little to stop them committing a crime.
How can social class cause people to commit crime? (STATUS FRUSTRATION) Lack of opportunity(ies) Frustrated with an unfair society To get their own back (criminal & delinquent behavior) Labeling Lack of money
What do MARXISTS believe? (SOCIAL CLASS) Money, possessions (material goods etc.) are of high value, they believe that this message is enforced by the media. They believe that crime is a way to join in with having money and many material goods with out spending any money. (DIGITAL DIVIDE) They think that the legal system is in favor of higher class people (lower classes are more likely to be targeted for crimes). Labeling, stereotyping.
How are women SOCIALISED to commit less crime than men? They are socialised differently by the agents of social control Girls are trained to be passive and caring whereas boys are encouraged to be aggressive Males are 'allowed' to be criminals (it is a norm) however this is abnormal behavior for a woman Girls are protected from danger Boys are given more freedom and have more opportunity to commit crimes Women get smaller prison sentances
What is convergence? Give an advantage and a disadvantage It is the coming together of different forms of media. For example a smart phone can be used as a phone, map, calculator etc. + Cheaper as you do not have to buy separate items, more convenient - People are not as social, distractions from 'real life' and relationships, expensive
What is interactivity? Give an advantage and a disadvantage Audience participation in the creation of the media. +Audience feels in control, audience feels like they are making a contribution and making constructive criticism (comments) - Possibility of disappointment, may cost money, audience have no real control, many aren't even read and some could be bullying (comments)
What is intertextuality? Give an advantage and a disadvantage Media about other media. + Helps to make decisions - Distracts us from more important issues e.g. war, politics
What is globalisation? The world is interconnected through the media. + Internet allows frendships and communities of people with shared intersets to develop over great distances. Communication with fam,ily and friends is a lot easier (24/7). - Government can censor what information can enter the country e.g. North Korea. The country and the people need to be rich enough to create and access the media.
What do Marxists believe? (MEDIA OWNERSHIP) They dislike that the media is owned by so few. the believe that the rich only own the media and that they only promote and control what they see as acceptable norms, behavior and political views.
What do the Pluralists believe? (MEDIA OWNERSHIP) They believe the audience has control of the media. They think that interactivity has made the audience powerful and what the public wants is what the public gets.
Who controls the media? (5) Government/Law (though censorship) Owners Editors/Gatekeepers Audience Adivitisors
What is newsworthiness and news values? NEWSWORTHINESS - The idea that some stories are more worthy of being included in the news NEWS VALUES - Criteria for judging how news worthy a story is
What was Abercrombie's study (1996)? Believes that representations of black characters improved throughout the 90s when black actors played normal British roles in British soaps, or American comedies (such as the Fresh prince of Bel Air).
What was Trowler's sociological study? Believed that the media served different functions e.g. A window An interactive link A carrier of information A filter A mirror A barrier An interpreter A siignpost
What are the 4 media effects models? Uses and gratifications model Hypodermic syringe model Cultural effects model Two-step flow model
What is the uses and gratifications model? The belief that the audience controls all of the media and if they stop then it will also stop e.g. Elderado.
What is the hypodermic syringe model? The belief that the audience is directly affected by the media. For example copycat criminals and the taxi driver that was killed by a 19 year old the had been watching/playing GTA IV (and then copying that).
What is the cultural effects model? It is the belief that the media has a slower effect on its audience (like a dripping tap). It is repeating messages in the media e.g. immigration
What is the two-step flow model? The media has an indirect effect on its audience. The audience takes the opinion of its role model e.g. if a celebrity tells them to support a charity then even though this isn't their opinion, because this is their role models opinion it is now also theirs.
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