Crime Scenes - NC Revision

jenndesu
Flashcards by jenndesu, updated more than 1 year ago
jenndesu
Created by jenndesu almost 6 years ago
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Crime Scene revision for me and peeps.

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Name the key steps the first officer attending would take upon arriving at a crime scene. 1. • Assist the victim(s) and provide immediate medical assistance (even if evidence is destroyed in process). 2. • The deceased victim(s) are not cleaned up until a Forensic Officer checks for trace evidence including bloodstains, hair and other evidence. 3. • Witnesses and suspects are found, detained and kept separate to avoid transference of trace evidence. 4. • Crime scene is protected (perimeter marked with tape to enable logging and recording of visitors). 5. • NOTE any changes made to the crime scene.
Name 3 types of evidence found at crime scenes. Biological evidence or Latent print evidence (e.g., fingerprints, palm prints, foot prints). or Footwear"and tire track evidence. or Trace evidence (e.g., fibers, soil, vegetation, glass fragments). or Digital evidence (e.g., cell phone records, Internet logs, email messages). or Tool and tool mark evidence. or Drug evidence. or Firearm evidence. or Testimonial evidence.
What does “psychological evidence” mean? Psychological evidence is information that can provide and insight to the mind of the offender such as evidence of intent/pre-planning or a spur-of-the-moment crime of passion. It can also refer to the level of violence displayed in the crime, which has implications for trial/sentencing.
Give 3 examples of Psychological Evidence. Weapons brought to the scene can indicate intent compared to an apparently unplanned weapon e.g. heavy vase in a home. or Evidence of an attempt to clean the crime scene and remove physical evidence (e.g. weapon not at the scene; blood cleaned from scene). or Multiple injures on the victim/blood splatter patterns indicating frenzied attack or the use of strangulation/single wound with weapon brought to the scene. or Shrine of worship. or Tokens taken from victims. or Personal Belongings of offender (diary, photographs etc)
What are organised criminals? Organised criminals hide the body of victim(s), remove the weapon from the scene, target specific victim(s), restrain victim(s) and use aggression before death and offenders appears to be well-planned.
What assumptions are made about organised criminals? Assumptions suggests an offender has average or above average IQ, employed, usually quite skilled, socially competent, uses alcohol in commission of crime, uses car to drive to crime scene/hunt for victim and obsessed with media coverage of his crimes.
What are disorganised criminals? Disorganised criminals are more likely to not hide the body of victim(s), they don't make attempts to remove the weapon, they appear to be spontaneous, they may know the victim(s) personally and they tend to show aggression or have sex post-mortem.
What assumptions are made about disorganised criminals? Assumptions suggest that the offender has below average IQ, has an unstable employment record, is unskilled, socially isolated, lives close to crime scene, followed a strict discipline as a child and tends to show signs of extreme anxiety.
Name 2 difference approaches to offender profiling. Top-down and-bottom up approaches.
Explain what is the top-down approach to offender profiling. The American method - a ‘top-down’ approach from FBI research (1978). The approach involves: in-depth interviews with convicted murderers, getting detailed information from behavioural science unit, using the Classification system for several serious crimes (including rape and murder) Eg: murders classified as ‘organised’ or ‘disorganised’ (Rossiter et al 1988). Also involves looking for statistical patterns and trends.
Explain what is the bottom-up approach to offender profiling. This approach is the British method -Canter (1980s). Approach is based on psychological theories and methodologies (cognitive social) theories formulated to show how and why variations in criminal behaviour occur. This approach looks at consistencies within actions of offenders and the differences between them. This approach is more objective & reliable (than Top Down).
What categories can crime scenes be classified into? Location of Criminal Activity (Primary and Secondary), Size of Area ( Macroscopic and Microscopic), Type of Crime Committed (Homicide, Robbery, Sexual Assault, etc.), Physical Location of the Crime (Indoors, Outdoors, Vehicle etc.).
Name 3 types of information taken from crime scenes. Corpus Delicti or Modus Operendi or Linking people, objects, crime scene or Proving witness/suspect statements or Identification of suspects or Identification of unknown substances or Providing investigative leads
What is the locard exchange principle? When 2 objects come into contact with one another, an exchange of matter takes places which means Physical evidence can link suspect, victim, crime scene, and objects to one another.
What is crime scene reconstruction? When all the evidence is used to form a hypothesis. Hypothesises are then tested by additional analyses and disproved hypothesises are thrown out leaving a reconstruction theory.
What are the goals of a crime scene investigation? To determine: - What happened - Where did it happen - When did it happen - Why did it happen - Who may have perpetrated these actions - How was the incident carried out
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