infections of the CNS and stroke

Mellie Niller
Flashcards by Mellie Niller, updated more than 1 year ago
Mellie Niller
Created by Mellie Niller almost 6 years ago
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Flashcards on infections of the CNS and stroke, created by Mellie Niller on 05/16/2015.

Resource summary

Question Answer
what is the main portal for pathogens to enter the central nervous system? the bloodstream
what are some alternative entry points for pathogens to enter the central nervous system? peripheral nerves, adjacent areas (such as ear and upper respiratory tract infections), head injuries
what are the possible consequences of an infection of the central nervous system? infection --> tissue damage --> inflammation --> this swelling has dangerous compressive effects on the brain and spinal cord. the body has only limited capacity to repair or replace CNS tissue, this could all lead to permanent neurological damage +/or fatality
what is the name for inflammation of the brain? encephalitis
bacterial meningitis should be treated as a medical emergency - true or false? true !
'coccidus meningitidis' ('meningococcal meningitis') is one of the main causative organisms of meningitis - true or false? False ! the main causative organisms are 'Neisseria meningitis', 'haemophilus influenzae', 'streptococcus pneumoniae' and 'pneumococcus'
meningitis can result from spread of a respiratory tract infection - true or false? true !
which populations are at a high risk for meningitis? toddlers and infants, the elderly, the immune-compromised, and people with head injuries or post head surgery
what are 3 symptoms of meningitis? headache, fever, muscle rigidity (usually stiffness of the neck)
what is the single most important diagnostic tool for meningitis? microbial analysis of the cerebro-spinal fluid by lumbar puncture
how can nasal infection lead to meningitis? organisms colonise the nasal cavity and throat - from there they enter the bloodstream and cross the blood-brain barrier
in bacterial meningitis, how soon do antibiotics need to be administered upon a patients arrival ? within 30 minutes
what barrier must antibiotics be able to cross in order to combat bacterial meningitis? the blood-brain barrier
vaccines to prevent bacterial meningitis are available - true or false? true !
who could be considered for administration of prophylactic antibiotics for bacterial meningitis? intimate contacts of an infected person or pregnant women
what is the most common cause of viral encephalitis in Australia? arboviruses from the arthropod - a species of mosquito
supportive therapy is essential to control the neurological symptoms in viral encephalitis - true or false? true !
vaccines for encephalitis are available - true or false? true, in endemic areas
what is the name for the dormant cells where 'Clostridium tetani' and C. botulism' can live for a long period of time in the soil? endospores
the spores of 'Clostridium tetani' can get into a wound, associated with what injuries? animal bites or lacerations from a dirty object
tetanus is manifested by OVER activity of what 2 things? motor neurons and sympathetic nerves
is tetanus manifested by muscle spasms or weakness? spasms
whats an example of a muscle disorder in a tetanus patient? lockjaw - contraction of the masseter muscle
what is the first important step in tetanus treatment? thorough wound cleaning to ensure any residual bacteria is removed
tetanus is preventable by vaccination - true or false? true !
botulism is not an infection - what is it? it is a food intoxication - attained by eating food contaminated with the botulism toxin
botulism inhibits the release of which neurotransmitter? acetylcholine (Ach)
is botulism characterised by muscle weakness or spasm? weakness
botox is administered medically to overcome muscle spasm or weakness? spasm
stroke is due to a sudden disruption of what? blood supply to the brain
what is the most preventable cause of stroke? smoking
what are the two types of stroke? ischaemic and haemorrhagic
atrial fibrillation can cause ischaemic stroke - true or false? true !
deep vein thrombosis can cause haemorrhagic stroke - true or false? false ! DVT can cause ischaemic stroke.
what are 2 main causes of haemorrhagic stroke? intracerebral haemorrhage and aneurysm
how are headache symptoms in stroke patients different to those with sleep deficiency? in stroke there is a variation in pattern, often with a stabbing sensation
transient ischaemic attack (TIA) is a real stroke - true or false? false ! a TIA indicates a serious problem in blood supply, and could trigger a 'real' stroke. a warning sign
to confirm a stroke diagnosis, what examinations do you need to perform? a CT scan (CAT - stands for computerized axial tomography), an echo and an MRI
would you consider administering thrombolytic therapy immediately for ischaemic stroke? yes ! thrombolytic therapy will (hopefully) degrade the clot responsible for the ischaemic event and is most effective administered within 3 hours of the stroke
what are the early symptoms of brain herniation? eyelid drop, pupil dilation and disabled eye movement. this is due to compression of the oculomotor nerve caused by increased intracranial pressure
the most serious consequence of brain herniation due to haemorrhage is compression of the brain stem / medulla - why? this area of the CNS contains respiratory and circulatory centres - compress these too much and the patient could suffer sudden death
does motor cortex damage lead to skeletal paralysis on the same or opposite side? opposite
neural degenerative disease is reversible - true or false? false ! protein aggregates progressively in the CNS, degrading neurons. nerve cells can't really divide so they can't really be replaced - this is eventually fatal.
which neurotransmitter is affected in alzheimers patients? acetylcholine (Ach)
alzheimers is manifested by what affect to the cortex? shrinkage
in alzheimers, which brain lobes are affected and which are unchanged? the frontal and temporal lobes are particularly affected, the occipital is not usually changed
what are the 3 stages of behavioural change in alzheimers patients? 1. short term memory loss 2. deterioration of higher learning function, disorientation, confusion, impaired hygiene and language use 3. incontinence, inability to recognize family and friends, loss of speech
which neurotransmitter is affected in Parkinson's disease? dopamine
why can't you use dopamine to treat Parkinson's? dopamine is water soluble, and therefore can't cross the blood-brain barrier
patients with Parkinson's can have difficulty standing up from a low chair - true or false? true ! selective deterioration of dopamine in the basal ganglia/nuclei causes akinesia - difficulty initiating movement
which meds can cross the blood-brain barrier and be cleaved into dopamine? levodopa and carbidopa
a reduction in the levels of what leads to Huntington's disease? gamma-amino-butyric
the involuntary movements in patients with Huntington's disease are normally repetitive - true or false? true !
Huntington's disease can be inherited - true or false? true !
Huntington's chorea (the involuntary movements that are symptomatic of it) can be ameliorated by meds to increase brain GABA levels - true or false? false !
what injury is manifested by a bruise to the cortical surface of the brain? a contusion.
is the memory loss secondary to concussion usually temporary or permanent? temporary
is the memory loss secondary to diffuse axonal injury (DIA) usually temporary or permanent? permanent
whats the prognosis for patients with rapid intracranial bleeding? if the haematoma is discovered prior to loss of consciousness and you remove it, prognosis is good. if the haematoma has been significant enough to cause loss of consciousness it can be fatal
give an example of a 'secondary' brain injury 'primary' brain injury refers to the initial injury sustained - such as a traumatic blow to the head. 'secondary' refers to subsequent injuries like a neurotoxic cascade - a liberation of chemicals caused by tissue trauma that cause disruption to the blood-brain barrier
in spinal shock, reflex activity would normally disappears - true or false? true !
spinal cord injury (SCI) ALWAYS leads to a complete loss of both motor and sensory function - true or false? false ! the spinal cord can be 'incomplete' and there are varying degrees of loss of function.
loss of bladder and bowel control due to spinal shock is permanent - true or false? false !
spinal injury at or above which point would normally result in the inability to breathe independently C3
autonomic dysreflexia is manifested by an exaggerated response of what? the sympathetic reflexes
a positive reaction to which clinical test is suggestive of spinal cord injury? Babinski
blood pressure is increased in autonomic dysreflexia - true or false? true !
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