GCSE Biology - Homeostasis and Classification Flashcards

Beth Coiley
Flashcards by , created about 4 years ago

GCSE Biology Flashcards on GCSE Biology - Homeostasis and Classification Flashcards, created by Beth Coiley on 05/25/2015.

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Beth Coiley
Created by Beth Coiley about 4 years ago
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Question Answer
What is CLASSIFICATION? The organisation of living things into groups based on their characteristics and similarities.
What are the five kingdoms? - Animalia - Plantae - Fungi - Protoctista - Prokaryotae
How are organisms further classified within the five kingdoms? According to: Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, Species
According to which three characteristics are vertebrates further grouped? Oxygen absorption method (Lungs, gills, skin) Reproduction (internal/external fertilisation, viviparous or oviparous) Thermoregulation (homeotherm or poikilotherm)
List the main characteristics of Plantae and give examples. Main characteristics: Cellulose cell wall, photosynthesise to produce energy, have chlorophyll, autotrophic feeders Examples: Algae, mosses, conifers, flowering plants
List the main characteristics of Animalia and give examples. Main characteristics: No cell wall, multicellular, heterotrophic feeders, no chlorophyll - do not photosynthesise Examples: Jellyfish, echinoderms, mammals, birds, amphibians, reptiles, mammals, fish
List the main characteristics of Prokaryotes and give examples. Main characteristics: Peptidoglycan cell wall, no cell nucleus, single-celled, reproduce asexually Examples: Bacteria, archaea, blue-green algae
List the main characteristics of Protoctists and give examples. Main characteristics: Live primarily as single cells or colonies but can be multicellular, have a nucleus. Basically anything that can't be classified in another kingdom! Examples: Amoeba, paramecium, kelp, slime mould, zooflagellates
List the main characteristics of Fungi and give examples Main characteristics: Eukaryotic, reproduce using spores, heterotrophic, store food as starch, chitin cell wall, saprophytic feeders Examples: Moulds, mushrooms, yeast
What is homeostasis? Give examples of some conditions that must be controlled. Maintaining a constant internal environment - the nervous system and hormones are responsible for this. Conditions that must be controlled include: Body temperature Water content Carbon dioxide level Blood glucose level
What are hormones? Hormones are proteins that act as chemical messengers. They are secreted by glands and carried in the blood. They only affect the function of particular 'target' cells, which have a responsive chemical receptor.
Give examples of geographical, reproductive and ecological barriers that could result in speciation. Geographical - Rivers or mountains, movement of land masses Ecological - Different habitats, breeding areas or levels of salinity Reproductive - different courtship/breeding behaviours, physical differences, failure of gametes to fuse
What is a superbug? Superbugs are bacteria that have genetic advantages - for example, immunity to antibiotics. The mutations they carry spread rapidly through the population. If bacteria become resistant to several antibiotics, they are known as superbugs.
What is speciation? As long as individuals across a population are able to breed and exchange genes, they remain one species. However, if isolating barriers result in gaps between populations and prevent the exchange of genes, speciation can occur.
What is survival of the fittest? Reproduction is a wasteful process - animals and plants always produce more offspring than environments can support. Within a species, there is variation, due to differences in inherited alleles. Offspring with the 'best' genes - most suited to their environment - survive to reproduce.
What are discontinuous and continuous variation? Give examples of each. Continuous variation - Can be assigned one value from a range. Combined effects of genetics and environment. e.g. height. Discontinuous variation - Cannot be measured and is one of a few distinct options. Only influenced by genetics. e.g. blood group, eye colour.
What is natural selection? The process by which random evolutionary changes are selected for, by nature, in a consistent, orderly, non-random way.
What are mutations? New genes are a result of changes in sections of DNA. Mutations can occur naturally when DNA is copied before cell division.
List the main characteristics of each sub-category of Animalia. Mammals - have fur/skin, viviparous Birds - have feathers, oviparous Reptiles - dry, scaly skin, can be ovoviviparous or oviparous Amphibians - soft, smooth skin, can be ovoviviparous or oviparous Fish - mucus-covered scales, can be oviparous, viviparous or ovoviviparous
What is a species? A species is a group of organisms that can interbreed to produce fertile offspring. However, some organisms reproduce asexually and some hybrids are fertile, meaning that separating species can be difficult.
What characteristic is common to all organisms in phylum chordata? Having a notochord, or a supporting rod running the length of the body.
What happens if there is too much water present in the blood? 1. The hypothalamus detects too much water in the blood. 2. The pituitary gland releases antidiuretic hormone (ADH). 3. The kidneys reduce blood water level by diluting the urine. 4. The blood water level returns to normal.
What happens if the blood water level is too low? 1. The hypothalamus detects too little water in the blood. 2. The pituitary gland releases antidiuretic hormone (ADH). 3. The kidneys maintain blood water level (less water is lost in urine) 4. The blood water level returns to normal.
Which glands produce these hormones? Growth hormone Adrenaline Testosterone Thyroxine Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) Growth hormone - pituitary gland Adrenaline - adrenal gland Testosterone - testes Thyroxine - thyroid gland Antidiuretic hormone - pituitary gland
Which glands produce these hormones? Insulin Glucagon Oestrogen Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) Lutenising hormone (LH) Insulin - the pancreas Glucagon - the pancreas Oestrogen - ovaries FSH - pituitary gland LH - pituitary gland
What are endocrine glands? Glands of the endocrine system. They secrete their products (hormones) directly into the blood, rather than through a duct.
What are osmosis and osmoregulation? How can water content be controlled? Osmosis - diffusion of water molecules from a high to low concentration. Osmoregulation - Controlling the body's water content Controlled by losses from: The lungs (exhalation), the skin (sweating), the bladder (urination)