Neck

reynoldslaura
Flashcards by reynoldslaura, updated more than 1 year ago
reynoldslaura
Created by reynoldslaura over 7 years ago
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Year 2 anatomy Flashcards on Neck, created by reynoldslaura on 10/13/2013.

Resource summary

Question Answer
What is the innervation of platysma? The cervical branch of the facial nerve (CN VII)
What are the main actions of sternocleidomastoid? Unilateral contraction: Lateral flexion and rotation of the neck Bilateral contraction: Extends neck at atlanto-occipital joints and flexes cervical vertebrae so chin approaches manubrium
What is the innervation of sternocleidomastoid? The spinal accessory nerve (CN XI) for motor function and C2 and C3 nerves for pain and proprioception (bodies ability to sense joint movement within the joint)
What is the inferior attachment of platysma? Fascia covering superior parts of pectoralis major and deltoid muscles
What two muscles does the 11th cervical nerve innervate? Sternocleidomastoid and trapezius
What is the superior attachment of trapezius? Medial third of the superior nuchal line, external occipital protuberance, nuchal ligament and spinous processes of C7-T12 vertebrae
What is the function of trapezius? Retracts, elevates and rotates/ depresses scapula
What is the action of platysma? Draws corners of the mouth inferiorly showing an expression of fright and sadness. Also draws neck superiorly when teeth are clenched indicating tension
What is the superior attachment of the sternocleidomastoid muscle? Lateral surface of mastoid process and temporal bone and lateral half of superior nuchal line
What 4 muscles make up the suprahyoid muscles? (remember 'dont stroke my genitals') Digastric (anterior and posterior belly), Stylohyoid, Mylohyoid and Geniohyoid
What 4 muscles make up the strap/ infrahyoid muscle group? (remember TOSS) Thyrohyoid, Omohyoid, Sternohyoid, Sternothyroid
Which strap muscles are innervated by the ansa cervicalis? (part of the cervical plexus) Sternohyoid, omohyoid and sternothyroid (thyrohyoid is innervated via the hypoglossal nerve)
Where does the omohyoid originate from? The superior border of the scapula near the suprascapular notch
What is the united function of the strap (infrahyoid) muscles? To depress the hyoid
What structures are surrounded by the investing layer of deep cervical fascia? Sternocleidomastoid, trapezius, submandibular gland and parotid gland
What is the investing layer of deep cervical fascia continuous with posteriorly? Nuchal ligament
At what vertebral level does the hyoid bone lie? C3
What does the pretracheal layer of deep cervical fascia blend with inferiorly? The fibrous pericardium of the heart
Where is the retropharyngeal space located? Between the buccopharyngeal fascia and the prevertebral fascia
What is contained within the carotid sheath? Common and internal carotid arteries, internal jugular vein, vagus nerve, deep cervical lymph nodes, carotid sinus nerve, sympathetic nerve fibres
What fuses with the prevertebral layer of deep cervical fascia centrally? Anterior longitudinal ligament
What does the prevertebral layer of deep fascia extend as laterally? Axillary sheath
What is contained within the axillary sheath? Axillary artery, vein and its tributaries, nerves of the cords and branches of brachial plexus, lymphatic vessels and axillary lymph nodes
What is the function of the retropharyngeal space? To allow movement of the pharynx, oesophagus and trachea relative to the vertebral column during swallowing
What muscles make up the floor of the posterior triangle of the neck? Splenius capitis, levator scapulae, middle and posterior scalene muscles
What nerves are located in the posterior triangle of the neck? Spinal accessory (XI), roots of the brachial plexus (anterior rami C5-T1), suprascapular, cervical plexus, lesser occipital, great auricular, transverse cervical, supraclavicular and phrenic nerves
What does the suprascapular nerve innervate? supraspinatus and infraspinatus
How is the anterior triangle of the neck divided? Divided into 4 triangles; submental, submandibular, carotid and muscular triangles
What are the boundaries of the submental triangle? Apex is mandibular symphysis, laterally by anterior bellies of digastric, Floor is mylohyoid and base is hyoid bone
What are the borders of the submandibular triangle? Inferior border of the mandible, anterior and posterior bellies of digastric, floor is mylohyoid and hyoglossus and middle pharyngeal constrictor
What is contained within the submandibular triangle of the neck? Submandibular gland, submandibular lymph nodes, hypoglossal nerve (CN XII), nerve to mylohyoid, parts of facial artery and vein and submental artery
What lies in the submandibular triangle of the neck? Submandibular lymph nodes and superficial submandibular veins which unite to form anterior jugular vein
What are the boundaries of the carotid triangle of the neck? Superior belly of omohyoid, posterior belly of digastric and anterior border of sternocleidomastoid
What lies inside the carotid triangle of the neck? Common carotid artery, carotid sinus nerve (from glossopharyngeal CN IX) and carotid body
What are the boundaries of the muscular triangle in the neck? Superior belly of omohyoid, anterior border of sternocleidomastoid and the median plane of the neck
What does the muscular triangle of the neck contain? The infrahyoid muscles and viscera e.g. thyroid and parathyroid glands
What are the three cervical sympathetic ganglia of the neck and where are they located? Cervicothoracic ganglion- ant.to transverse process of C7 Middle cervical ganglion- ant. to inferior thyroid artery Superior cervical ganglion- level of C1/C2
Fibres from which cervical ganglion form the internal carotid sympathetic plexus? Superior cervical ganglion
When might we do a cervicothoracic ganglion block? To relieve excess vasoconstriction/ vascular spasms involving the brain and upper limb
What is horner syndrome caused by? A lesion of the sympathetic trunk in the neck
What is horner syndrome characterised by? Pupillary constriction (paralysis of dilator pupillae), anydrosis of face and neck, vasodilation, ptosis and enophthalmos of eye
What hormones are produced by the thyroid gland? Thyroid hormone and calcitonin
What hormones are produced by the parathyroid glands? Parathormone (PTH) which controls the metabolism of calcium and phosphorus in the blood
What vertebral level does the thyroid gland lie at? C5-T1
Which three veins drain the thyroid plexus of veins on the anterior surface of the thyroid and trachea? Superior thyroid veins (drain superior poles), middle thyroid veins (drain middle lobes) and inferior thyroid veins (drain inferior poles)
Where do the superior and middle thyroid veins drain into? Internal jugular vein
Where do the inferior thyroid veins drain into? Brachiocephalic veins- posterior to the manubrium
At what spinal level does the thyroid cartilage lie at? C4
What is the blood supply of the parathyroid glands? Inferior thyroid arteries
What is the lymphatic drainage of the thyroid gland? Inferior deep cervical lymph nodes
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