Politics: Europe finals

Emily Fenton
Flashcards by Emily Fenton, updated more than 1 year ago
Emily Fenton
Created by Emily Fenton almost 6 years ago


Flashcards for the second half of the Politics: Europe course

Resource summary

Question Answer
Reasons for European Cooperation After WWII (3) 1. To avoid further war 2. Economic benefits 3. Countries that trade together wont wage war on each other
Evolution of the EU (5 Dates) 1. 1951: European Coal and Steel Community with the original 6 2. 1957: Treaty of Rome and the creation of the European Economic Community and Euratom 3. 1967: European Community (merging ECSC, EEC and Euratom) 4. 1992: Treaty of Maastricht established the EU under the 3 pillar structure and began thinking of a monetary union 5. 2009: Treaty of Lisbon combined existing treaties in to a type of constitution, got rid of pillar structure and installed a president of the European Council
3 Pillar Structure of the Treaty of Maastricht 1992 1st pillar: European Community 2nd pillar: Common foreign and security policy (EFSP) 3rd pillar: justice and home affairs
European Union Institutions (5) 1. European Commission 2. European Council 3. Council of Ministers 4. European Parliament 5. European Court of Justice
European Commission Considered the most important institution, due to its range of executive powers and legislative powers. It is made up of 28 members approved by the European Parliament, and there is a 5-year term. The current president is Jean-Claude Junker
Legislative (1) and Executive (5) Powers of the European Commission Legislative: proposing legislation Executive: 1. Implements EU policies 2. Manages budget (1% European GNP) 3. Conducts external relations 4. Polices EU law 5. Points the way forwards
European Council Often called "the summit", the European Council is made up of the heads of member states who meet roughly 4 times/year (making it intergovernmental). The President is Donald Tusk
Functions of the European Council (5) 1. Sets pace of integration 2. Initiates major policies 3. Resolves problems 4. Acts as decision maker 5. International player
Council of Ministers (and 3 powers) Gathers ministers of member states to form roughly 250 working committees, setting medium-term policy goals per subject area (more specific than European Council) Powers: approving legislation from Commission, budget approval and executive power in CFSP and Justice and Home Affairs
Councils of the Council of Ministers (10) 1. General affairs 2. Foreign affairs 3. Economic and financial affairs 4. Agriculture and fisheries 5. Transport, telecommunications and energy 6. Justice and home affairs 7. Environment 8. Employment, social policy, health and consumer affairs 9. Competitiveness 10. Education, youth and culture
European Parliament In charge of approving legislature from Commission, as well as appointing/approving European Commission. The EP has the power to veto budget proposals, but has NO power to initiate legislation One of the only popularly elected EU bodies; political parties are mostly made up of national parties
Issues Surrounding European Parliament (4) 1. Public apathy (low election turnout) 2. Democratic deficit 3. Waste of money and resources (sessions in Strasbourg, committee meetings in Brussels, secretariat in Luxembourg) 4. 24 official languages = expensive translation
European Court of Justice Can be considered the "constitutional" court of the EU. There are 28 judges, and they interpret, review and determine the constitutionality of legislation
"Legal Acts" of the EU Court of Justice (4) 1. Regulations: generally applied 2. Directives: binding to certain extent 3. Decisions: entirely binding 4. Recommendations/opinions: not binding
EU Policy Areas (5) 1. The Single Market 2. Regional policy/cohesion 3. Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) 4. Economic and Monetary Union (EMU) 5. Justice and Home Affairs (JHA)
Four Freedoms of the Single Market 1. Free movement of goods 2. Free movement of services 3. Free movement of capital 4. Free movement of labour
Rationale for Single Market Following the Oil Crisis of the 70's, many European countries adopted protectionist measures. Increased national restrictions limited cross-border trading of the EEC. Single Market was implemented to combat dangerous protectionist measures
Benefits of Single Market (5) 1. GDP growth and increasing employment 2. Cross-border mergers are possible (larger companies increase productivity) 3. More FDI as EU becomes more attractive for investment 4. More intra-EU trade 5. European markets become more competitive on global scale
Single Market Policies (3) 1. Competition policy (preventing monopolies) 2. Merger policy (preventing monopolies) 3. Keeping level playing field (state aid to companies shouldn't distort competition within Europe)
Single Market Policies of the Last Decade (6) 1. Liberalizing telecommunications, gas and electricity 2. Establishing EU-wide patents 3. Liberalizing postal systems and rail transport 4. Rationalizing road tax system 5. Aim for pension portability 6. Reduce state subsidy
Reasons for Regional Policy/Cohesion in EU (3) 1. EU can benefit from underused resources in low-growth countries 2. Maintaining rural/urban balance 3. Promotion of solidarity (wealth distribution) All leading to a more UNIFIED European Union
Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) Dating from Treaty of Rome, it is widely seen as outdated. It concerns income support for farmers and rural development. 40% of EU budget goes to CAP Changes have been made to prevent surpluses from the incentivized production of the past; now money goes to farmers in the form of income supplements
CAP Principles (3) 1. Unified/single market (free movement of agricultural products) 2. Community preference (EU products over non-EU) 3. Financial solidarity (not in the hands of national governments)
Arguments for CAP (3) 1. Maintains landscape diversity 2. Maintains employment in countryside 3. Agriculture needs more regulation than other things because they depend on things like weather, which can't be foreseen/controlled
Arguments Against CAP (6) 1. Overproduction 2. Storage of overproduction 3. Big farmers benefit more than small 4. Environmental damage 5. Trade protectionism 6. Disincentive for farmers in developing world to become self-sustainable (they can import EU surplus)
Components of the Economic and Monetary Union (4) 1. Single currency (euro) 2. European Central Bank 3. Common pool of foreign reserves 4. Single interest rates (set by ECB)
Stages of Economic Integration in EU (7) 1. Preferential trading area 2. Free trade area 3. Customs union 4. Common market (1951-1952) 5. Economic union 6. Monetary union (1999) 7. Complete economic integration
Pros and Cons of EMU Pros: transaction costs are lower; less economic uncertainty; symbol of European identity; helps avoid crisis Cons: divides management between ECB, EU and national governments; members have no monetary policy; convergence criteria is unattainable; creates 3-tiered EU
EMU Convergence Criteria (4) 1. Price stability: inflation rate of no more than 1.5% above three best-performing states 2. Limited public debt: no more than 3% of GDP annually, no more than 60% total 3. Limited exchange rate fluctuation 4. Reasonably low interest rates (no more than 2% above best performers)
Justice and Home Affairs (3 responsibilities) 1. Citizenship 2. Asylum and immigration 3. Judicial and police cooperation (Europol)
Citizenship Rights according to the Schengen Agreement (6) 1. Right to move freely and reside in EU territory 2. Right to vote/stand in local and EP elections 3. Right to diplomatic protection 4. Right to petition the EP 5. Principle of non-discrimination 6. Equal access to EU's civil service
Left and Right-wing Policies Right-wing: deregulation, privatization Left-wing: cohesion policies, interventionist policies, defending social rights
Aims of European Foreign Policies (4) 1. Support stability 2. Promote democracy and human rights 3. Promote rule of law and good governance 4. Spread prosperity
Policy Categories in EU External Relations (8) 1. Trade policies/global negotiations 2. Development aid 3. Humanitarian aid 4. Security and defense policies 5. EU enlargement 6. European Neighbourhood Policy (ENP) 7. Human rights 8. Democracy promotion
Institutions involved in EU External Relations (3) 1. European Commission (high representative) 2. European External Action Service 3. The Council of Ministers
Key Actors of EU External Relations (6) 1. Mogherini (high representative) 2. Malstrom (commissioner for trade) 3. Hahn (enlargement and ENP) 4. Stylianides (humanitarian aid) 5. Mimica (international cooperation and development 6. National ministers of foreign affairs
Development Aid Creation of foreign policies concerning governance and protection of human rights and development, protecting foods/natural resources and boosting economies. Mostly targeting the developing world, and financed by national governments in EU
Common Foreign and Security Policy Missions (3) 1. Peacekeeping 2. Border control 3. Training police
EU Enlargement This is when the EU signs Association Agreements with countries who want to join the EU; the Agreements spell out criteria for joining, and the EU employs "conditionality" to reward countries for complying with the Agreements Countries currently in negotiation with EU: Iceland, Montenegro, Macedonia, Serbia and Turkey
European Neighbourhood Policy Deals with countries without short or medium term prospect of joining the EU; mostly in North Africa and the former Soviet Union The idea is that the EU can "share the stability and prosperity of the EU with neighbours"
Focus Areas of Human Rights Policies (13) 1. Death penalty 2. EU human rights dialogues 3. Cooperation with NGO's 4. Human rights defenders 5. Human trafficking 6. Discrimination 7. Fight against impunity 8. Indigenous peoples 9. Torture and ill-treatment 10. Children's rights 11. Women's rights 12. Protecting/promoting LGBT rights 13. Economic, social and cultural rights
Democracy Promotion (2 aspects) 1. Supporting civil society 2. Election observation/monitoring
Why does the EU need foreign policy? (3) 1. Customs union, therefore similar economic interest 2. Pooling sovereignty (more can be accomplished together than separately) 3. Ideology (idea of "ever closer union" should include external relations)
Why is the EU "without parallel"? (4) 1. International relations system in its own right, as well as an actor in international relations 2. Extensive external relations 3. EU external relations has partially replaced those of its members 4. EU is a normative power
How EU External Relations is Done (6) 1. Leverage used in the periphery (prospect of membership) 2. Self-image 3. Degree of universalism 4. Scope of territorial control 5. Types of external borders (fuzzy) 6. Objectives in the periphery (good governance)
Types of Power the EU Could be (3) 1. Normative power (based on norms, and without foreign policy) 2. Civilian power (non-military use of economic or diplomatic power) 3. Military power (uses armed forces to influence others and promote democracy) *EU is really only the first two
The EU has a Democratic Deficit (5 arguments) 1. No direct elections for most decision making bodies 2. Commissioners are not accountable to public 3. European Parliament is much less powerful compared to national parliaments 4. Lack of transparency in decision-making 5. Public apathy
Arguments Against Democratic Deficit (5) 1. Every EU actor with political power has been elected in one way or another 2. European Parliament has become more powerful over the years 3. EU consensus-style politics is very democratic 4. EU doesn't impact daily lives, so maybe it doesn't matter 5. Improving EU visibility decreases democratic deficit
Detachment of Public from the EU (4 arguments) 1. Low EP election turnout 2. Lack of interest in EU politics 3. Lack of knowledge about EU politics 4. EU is an elite project
European Identity (3) 1. European symbols (flag, euro) 2. Shared history 3. "European Culture": maybe Christianity? Shared values?
Turkey Joins the EU (pros and cons) Pros: opens new market and blurs "Christian Europe" identity (signal to the Middle East, maybe) Cons: Turkish president is undemocratic (?), some Turkish legislation is not in accord with EU values, and would put the border closer to volatile areas like Syria
Europeanization (4 types) 1. Top-down, hard: driven by national government or EU; institutional adjustments by "downloading" policies 2. Top-down, soft: driven by national government or EU; subtle or indirect pressure in the form of setting norms or preferential support 3. Bottom-up, hard: driven from the people; "uploading" policy preferences, national/interest group lobbying 4. Bottom-up, soft: driven from the people; attempts to change "European" values/norms; forming EU identity
Scale of Opinions of EU (5) 1. Nation-state sovereignty 2. Roll-back of some EU policies 3. Stay where we are 4. Confederation/more EU 5. United States of Europe?
Origins of the OSCE (4) 1. Negotiations began in 1970's (intended to deflate Cold War tensions) 2. Agreement of a set of principles (human rights included) 3. "Comprehensive view of security" 4. Helsinki Final Act 1975
Development of the OSCE (6) 1. Commission on Security and Cooperation in Europe created a "society" bound by a set of norms 2. CSCE turned into OSCE in late 80's 3. Formerly communist states joined 4. Key principles decided at a few summits in 90's 5. Now 57 participating states 6. OSCE is one of the main "civilizing agents" in the former Soviet Union
OSCE Activities (18) 1. Arms control 2. Border management 3. Combating human trafficking 4. Combating terrorism 5. Conflict prevention/resolution 6. Economic activities (supporting growth) 7. Education 8. Election observation 9. Gender equality 10. Good governance 11. Human rights 12. Media freedom and development 13. Military reform and cooperation 14. Minority rights 15. Policing 16. Roma and Sinti rights 17. Rule of law 18. Tolerance and non-discrimination
OSCE Institutions/Actors (7) 1. Rotating chairmanship 2. Secretariat in Vienna 3. Office for Democratic Institutions and Human Rights in Warsaw 4. High commissioner on national minorities in the Hague 5. Representative on freedom of the media 6. Minsk Group (resolving Nagorno/Karabakh conflict) 7. Parliamentary assembly (320 members in 56 countries)
Differences between EU and OSCE (4) 1. Different set of countries (OSCE much wider) 2. OSCE focuses more on security and human rights 3. OSCE has less power to achieve what it wants 4. Uses more socialization (persuasion, etc)
Council of Europe Formed in 1949, the Council of Europe began with the European Convention on Human Rights. Focused on the promotion of democracy (based largely on the democratic peace theory), and believes in a norm-driven society
Council of Europe Institutions (5) 1. Committee of Ministers (Ministers of Foreign Affairs) 2. Parliamentary Assembly (gives advice/recommendations) 3. Congress of local and regional authorities 4. European Court of Human Rights (supranational court where individuals can take grievances against their governments) 5. Venice Commission (advisory body on legal issues)
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