Crime & Deviance Cards

Charlotte Gray5800
Flashcards by , created about 4 years ago

A-level Sociology (Crime and deviance) Flashcards on Crime & Deviance Cards, created by Charlotte Gray5800 on 05/27/2015.

Charlotte Gray5800
Created by Charlotte Gray5800 about 4 years ago
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Question Answer
What are the 2 types of police? Neighborhood- Community Support Reactive- Respond to 999 calls
What type of policing is referred to as plastic policing? Neighborhood
what are the 3 types of relationships between society and the police? Consensual Conflict late modern
What theory is linked with the consensual approach? Functionalist
Consensual approach Police have close relationship with area Police respect interests of the law abiding people offices are drawn from the community Reacts to needs of community
what is a problem with the consensual approach? Criminals are not always caught
what theories link with the conflict approach? Marxist & Feminist
Conflict Approach Working class and ethnic minorities are targeted by the police most police offices & high ranking offices are male impose law & order that reflect the needs of the more powerful groups
Conflict Approach- REINER People stopped & searched/ held by the police are mainly young, unemployed males from ethnic minority groups
Problem with the conflict approach? In some cases middle classed get arrested for things such as fraud
what theory links with the late modern approach? Post modern
Late modern approach shift towards neighborhood policing represents an extension of control over the population as the police are integrating themselves in the community
criticisms of the late modern approach More opt to the role of the police Neighborhood police don't have much power
FUNCTIONALISM Key information Crime is beneficial for society & without it society would fail
FUNCTIONALISM Collective conscience Agreed set of norms and values society agrees to
FUNCTIONALISM Anome Breakdown of norms and values
FUNCTIONALISM link to other theories Marx- doesn't look at class or white collar crime
FUNCTIONALISM 6 positive functions of deviance Marks extremes of behavior Publicity function Reflects wishes of population Strengthens bonds Provide safety value Warning device
FUNCTIONALISM What is meant when crime is described as a warning device? You can see whats not working in society
FUNCTIONALISM Merton's Strain theory Deviance occurs in society when members are unable to meet society's set goals
FUNCTIONALISM What are the 5 types of strain? Conformist Innovator Ritualist Retreatist Rebel
FUNCTIONALISM What is a confomist? Most common Teachers People who have gone through education
FUNCTIONALISM What is an innivatior? Drug dealers People who create their own means to achieve societies set goals
FUNCTIONALISM What is a ritualist? Low paid workers
FUNCTIONALISM What is retreatist? Alcohol/ Drugs People who haven't done societies set means and cannot achieve set goals so retreat into their own world
FUNCTIONALISM What is a rebel? Terrorists/ Freedom fighters people who don't agree with society so create own means and goals
FUNCTIONALISM Why doesn't the ritualist turn to crime? Socialized not to
FUNCTIONALISM Strengths of strain theory Provides theoretical reason to explain why people conform & deviate outlines an number of potential deviance
FUNCTIONALISM weakness of strain theory Ignores power struggle in society
FUNCTIONALISM Hirschi's Bonds of attachment Humans are rational and will only turn to crime when the advantages outweigh the disadvantages People attach themselves to society
FUNCTIONALISM what are the 4 bonds of attachment? commitment Involvement Attachment Belief
MARXISM Carcinogenic An unequal society that pushes people to commit crime
MARXISM how much do middle class crimes cost the government? £14 billion a year
MARXISM what 2 factors lead to status frustration and sometimes crimes of power such as domestic violence and rape? low income low status work
MARXISM capitalism causes inequality in... wealth income poverty unemployment homelessness
MARXISM Why do working classes commit crime? statistics ignore upper class crime working class socialized into not being afraid of breaking the law breakdown of working class areas working class have no money lack of power that working class have
MARXISM Non decision making happens in the creation of laws- many human needs ignored in the favor of working classes
MARXISM CHAMBLISS Argues that the increased importance of business & trade led to vast numbers of laws being passed to protect the interests of the upper class
MARXISM What is the problem with CHAMBLISS' theory? Purely theoretical
MARXISM White collar crime crime committed by a person of respectability and high social status in the course of their occupation
MARXISM Examples of white collar crime Fraud Insider dealing Tax evasion
MARXISM How many deaths are caused by employer negligence? 2/3
MARXISM Why do white collar crimes go undetected? low visibility complexity diffusion of responsibility diffusion of victimization
MARXISM why is white collar crime seen as a problem? not feared by public offences are invisible indirect offences difficult to see where blame lies complex- not fully understood
INTERACTIONIST deviant actions are those, which are defined as deviant
INTERACTIONIST Deviance is... socially constructed
INTERACTIONIST Master Status once a label has been applied all other actions are interpreted in the light of the label
INTERACTIONIST Self- Fulfilling prophecy when a person starts to act like the label they have been given
INTERACTIONIST Looking glass self- COOLEY we build our identity as a result of how others act and respond to us
INTERACTIONIST Projective labeling using a deviants identity to project a future action
INTERACTIONIST Becker labelling theory if an audience decides that a certain act is deviant segregation occurs Segregation creates 'outsiders' outcast from society labeling leads to a self fulfilling prophecy
INTERACTIONIST Moral Entrepreneurs Police