Sociology: Crime and Deviance Flash cards

Beth Morley
Flashcards by , created over 4 years ago

These are flashcards with unit 4 sociology terms

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Beth Morley
Created by Beth Morley over 4 years ago
A2 Sociology - Beliefs
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OCR F214 - Excretion
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An Gnáthrud
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Ethnicity and Deviant Subcultures
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Question Answer
Altruistic Suicide Emile Durkheim's term for suicide in societies where people see their own happiness as unimportant
Anomic Suicide Durkheim's term for suicide in societies where rapid change is occuring
Egoistic Suicide Durkheim's term for suicide in societies where people regard their individual happiness as very important
Fatalistic Suicide Results from the over-regulation of the individual (e.g. in prison or psychiatric institution)
Anomie Term, first used by Durkheim, to describe a breakdown of social expectations and behaviour; later used by Merton to explain reactions to situations in which socially approved goals were impossible for the majority of the population to reach legitimately
Bedroom Culture Used by Angela McRobbie and Jenny Garber to describe that girls are more likely than boys to socialize with their friends in the home, rather than on the streets or other public places
Chivalry Factor Used to suggest that the criminal justice system may treat women more leniently than men
Cultural Transmission Values are passed on from one generation to the next
Differential Association Theory that deviant behaviour is learned from, and justified by, family and friends
Hegemonic The dominant form of something
Hegemony The ideas and values of the ruling class that dominate thinking in society
Ideology Set of ideas and beliefs that justify actions
Ideological State Apparatus A term used by the Neo-Marxists writer Louis Althusser for those institutions that he claims exists to control the population through manipulating values (e.g. the media)
Deviancy Amplification When the action of the rule enforces or media in response to deviance brings about an increase in the deviance
Institutional Racism Racism that is built into the normal practices of an organization e.g. the police
Infrastructure Term used by Marxists to describe the way a society produces wealth
Interpretivist Sociologist Those whose approach to sociology and research emphasises understanding society by exploring the way people see society, rather than by following traditional scientific analysis
Left Realism A criminological theory, which argues that crime is a real problem affecting working communities. Left Realists argue that it is better to work within capitalism to improve people's lives, than to attempt full social change
Longitudinal Research Sociological research method involving studying a group over a long period of time
Macro Theory Way of looking at society, which concentrates on how social structure determines individual behaviour
Micro Theories Ways of explaining society that focus on how individuals interpret the social world
Marginalized A sociological term referring to those who are pushed to the edge of society in cultural, status or economic terms
Master Status When people are looked at solely on the basis of one type of act (good or bad) that they have committed, ignoring all other aspects of that person e.g. thief, murderer
Meritocratic System of government or another administration in which people are appointed on merit
Meta-narratives A postmodernist term used to refer to the structural theories of Marxism and functionalism
Night-time economy Refers to the way a leisure industry has developed at night in certain parts of the inner cities, providing the location of many offences
Operationalize To define something in such a way that it cant be measured
Polarization Marx- Rich get richer, poor get poorer
Paternalistic Patronizing approach that removes people's freedom to choose
Positivists Those advocating an approach that supports the belief that the way to gain knowledge is by following the conventional scientific model
Postmodern Rejects modernism attempts to explain the world through overreaching theories. Instead it suggests that there is no single, shared reality and focuses attention on the significance of the media in helping to construct numerous realities
Qualitative Data Data concerned with feelings, motives and experiences
Qualitative Research A general term for approaches to research that are less interested in collecting statistical data, and more interested in observing and interpreting the ways in which people behave
Strain Robert Merton- a lack of balance and adjustment in society
Superstructure Marxists- to describe the parts of society that are responsible for socialization and the spreading of ideology
Verstehen Weber- the role of sociology is to understand partly by seeing through the eyes of those being studied similar to 'empathy'
Zone of Transition Area of city with high level of population turnover