Terms used in LING1001 course
Flashcards by bailey1997, updated more than 1 year ago
Created by bailey1997 almost 9 years ago

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Question Answer
Icon a sign that is fit to signify because of resemblance between the sign and what it stands for e.g. diagrams bathroom signs
Index a sign that is fit to signify because of a real material relation between the sign and what it stands for e.g. smoke = fire cloud = rain
Symbol a sign that is fit to signify because of some agreement that it does (arbitrary; by convention) e.g. ♂ ♀
Pragmatic competence (communicative) appropriate expressions in context, understanding of speaker's intentions form + content + context
Semantic competence (meaning) general knowledge of word meanings form + content
Structural competence (grammatical) based on form e.g. phonetics form
Duality of Patterning (Charles Hockett's design features) The ability to combine meaningless parts (sounds) into meaningful wholes (words)
Arbitrariness (Charles Hockett's design features) the absence of any natural/necessary connection between a word's meaning and its sound
Productivity (Charles Hockett's design features) the limitless ability to use any natural language to say new things
Displacement (Charles Hockett's design features) allows users to talk about things and events other than those occurring in the here and now
Locutionary content core meaning of a sentence e.g. were you born in a barn?
Illocutionary force intention of speaker - changes with different context e.g. close the door ("were you born in a barn?")
Descriptive grammar a set of rules that describe the structure of a language as it is actually used by speakers and writers
Prescriptive grammar a set of rules that prescribe how people should speak and write 'properly' (used when teaching/learning a second language)
Morpheme minimal unit of linguistic expression associated with meaning
Allomorph variant form of a morpheme
Phonetics the acoustics and articulation of sounds studies the physical properties of sounds and their articulation
Phonology how to pronounce words and sentences the system of contrastive relationships among speech sounds that constitute fundamental components of a language
Morphology how to form words from smaller parts knowledge that is reflected in ones ability to analyse words into meaningful parts
Syntax how to form sentences governs the structuring of phrases and sentences
Linguistics human knowledge of language (a cognitive science) study of the general principles which govern all languages
Lexeme set of grammatical words that are in some sense forms of the same word (what you would look for in the dictionary)
Predicate a word or word clause which modifies the subject or object of a sentence
Clause a minimal linguistic expression to which a truth value can be assigned e.g. I fear spiders fear (fearer, feared)
Adjacency pair conversational turn-taking two utterances by two speakers, one after the other e.g. complaint -> apology offer -> refusal/acceptance
Recursion when a structure can be embedded in a similar structure (sentence within a sentence)
Derivation an affix which changes the meaning of a word e.g. soft + ly = softly
Inflection affix (always suffix in English) that changes the grammar e.g. -ing/ -ed/ -es/ -er/ -est
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