Theories of Human Development

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Flashcards on Theories of Human Development, created by G Marron on 06/08/2015.
G Marron
Flashcards by G Marron, updated more than 1 year ago
G Marron
Created by G Marron over 7 years ago
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Psychodynamic Perspective - Freud • Unconscious feelings affect our behaviour – we do not know why we behave but all actions have a cause. • Influenced by early childhood experiences. Mental Mechanisms • ID = ‘I want’ commands • Ego = resolves conflict between ID and Superego. • Superego = demands made by parents/society about how we should behave. Psychosexual Stages Oral - Sucking & biting creates pleasure. Fixation causes passive, gullible & attracted to oral pleasures e.g smoking. Anal - Fixation causes hoarding, stubbornness and OCD. Phallic - Girls attracted to father, boys attracted to mother. Parent is love object & letting go influences their future. Fixation causes vanity, recklessness and obsess. Latency - Age 5/6, over the complex and sexuality is dormant. Genital - Focused on sexual activity. Defence Mechanisms = ways people distort their understanding to protect ego. Denial = blocking information Repression = forcing memories into unconscious mind. Rationalisation - reinterpreting events to make safer for ego. Projection = project emotions onto others. Sublimation = change of mental energy direction. Reaction Formation = changing emotions to opposite.
Psychosexual - Freud Care Settings - Useful as it uncovers unconscious thoughts in order to explain human behaviour to change if needed. Can be applied to settings, especially therapy settings where service user is relaxed. Early Years - Childhood experiences contributes to adult personality. Toddlers need to be treated as individuals, given opportunities to do things for themselves. Praised a lot so that they feel a sense of self-worth. Must show acceptable behaviour as they have underdeveloped egos. Daycare - Elderly take great comfort in other being interested in their life, talking about their pas should be encouraged. Also used to understand phobias. Staff may go to courses about 'managing challenging behaviour'. Nursing homes - Carers should take into consideration any form of distress shown by the individual and not take it personally. Help understand phobias. Not make assumptions about service users - may not be able to help being messy or extremely tidy.
Biological Perspective - Eysenck • 3 traits describing human personality, biological basis for personality – criminal behaviour is linked to high levels of extroversion & inability. Traits = Introversion/Extroversion - individual may be hungry for experience & excitement so will be extrovert. Eager to avoid excitement will be introvert. Most people are in the middle. Stability/Instability - Stable is being calm, confident & carefree. Unstable would be being moody & changeable. Tough minded/Tender minded - Tough minded are careless of people's feelings whereas tender minded are caring, people are one or the other.
Biological Perspective - Eysenck Care Settings - Emphasises the personality of humans in general, also gives a base to establish criminal behaviour through traits - more appropriate in legal settings. Early Years - Aggression must be discharged due to it being innate for some children. Give them message that anger is ok e.g in sport. EYW must need to manage children on the extremes of extroversion/introversion scale. Daycare - Aggression must be discharged (likely to occur when away from main carer). Will be trained to look for signs of extroversion, instability & neurotiscism. No aggressive enviromental cues. Nursing homes - Workers will need to be trained to deal with them 24/7. They may need to be left alone or use own unique way of discharging aggression. Service providers will be trained to look for signs of extroversion, instability and neurotiscism.
Humanist Perspective - Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs. Physiological - food, warmth, shelter, sex. Safety - physical & emotional freedom from threat. Belonging - social inclusion & attachment. Self Esteem - respect and secure sense of self. All must be met to reach full potential; if not met person cannot reach self-actualisation. Self-Actualisation People who achieve self-actualisation have: • Accurate perception of reality • Greater acceptance of self and others • Greater self-knowledge & independence • Creativity, spiritual & artistic ability Also have high satisfaction in life. People achieve self-actualisation in later life and no sooner.
Humanist Perspective - Maslow Care Settings - Outlines the needs of service users so their place on the hierarchy can be established, this can be put into practice in all areas of the setting. Early Years - EYW's shoudl respect children so they feel they are being listened to and valued (self esteem). Should build relationships with children so they don't feel isolated (love and belonging). Keep dangerous objects away e.g scissors (safety). Should be provided with basic needs e.g food and drink/nap time (physical needs). Daycare - Need to prevent barriers that may stop self-actualisation. Should feel respected (self esteem). Provide safe and supportive relationships (love and belonging). Provide safe environment, physically & emotionally (safety needs). Provide basic physical needs. Nursing home - Provide opportunities and prevent barriers (self actualisation). Provide safe, supportive relationships through group activities (love and belonging). Safe environment (safety) and meet physical needs.
Constructivist Perspective - Piaget's Theory of Learning • Children & adults seek to understand the world, build mental representations in their minds. • Kids learn through experience. • As children grow they develop complex ways of interpreting the world. Accommodation – fitting into existing schemas. Assimilation – changing schemas, ideas and theories when new info is discovered. Equilibrium – balance. Piaget's Stages of Cognitive Development Sensorimotor Stage (0-1.5/2 yrs) Infants unable to make sense of what they see, unable to use imagination to remember objects. Towards the end they internalise picture memories. Pre-Operational Stage (2-7 yrs) Children cannot think logically - use words to communicate but don't understand them. Concrete Operational Stage (7-11 yrs) Can think logically if they see examples - cannot create mental images of things. Formal Operational Stage (11 yrs+) With logical reasoning, an adult can solve complex problems - enables us to exchange complicated ideas without having to see it.
Constructivist Perspective - Piaget Care Settings - Early Years Sensorimotor Stage - EYW would have to employ distraction techniques if baby is distressed when mother leaves, as they think she has gone even though she is still there. Must be able to explore environment using senses to learn fully. Process information visually. Pre-operational Stage - at this stage, children are ego-centric. Not able to tell difference from right or wrong so will need explanation. Show symbolic thinking e.g use a stick as a wand. Animism - think objects have thoughts&feelings. Development of language enables processing of info. Concrete Operational Stage - Conservation occurs. Children need to be able to see something in front of them to work it out e.g number lines. Formal Operations - Objects no longer required as tools for working things out.
Behavioural Perspective - Pavlov • Classical conditioning in dogs – dogs would salivate with the arrival of food after a bell was heard. The dogs learned to link bell with food (association). • Bell = conditioned stimulus • Salivation = conditioned response Can be used for phobias - taught relaxation techniques. Systematic Desenitisation - unlearn a fear/anxiety by putting conditioned relaxing skills in process.
Behavioural Perspective - Pavlov Care Settings - This can be used in care settings as it puts forward ways in which behaviour can be influences - can be used for phobias of fetishes, not useful for mental disorders.
Social Learning Perspective - Bandura • Learn through imitation based on how others are behaving socially. • Not all learning is done through direct reinforcement (imitation of others) • Bandura’s Bobo Doll experiment – adults punching the doll then children did the same thing. More likely to imitate if; • There are rewards for behaviour. • Perceived as being liked. • Similar to observer e.g same sex, age, ethnicity. • Can be copied. • Stands out & is noticeable. Behaviour of individuals can be changed - behaviour modification techniques by defining what should be learnt, stages: • Setting the goal. • Establishing student's operant level. • Reinforcement to strengthen behaviour. • Without reinforcement or extinguishing other behaviour.
Social Learning Theory - Bandura Care Settings - The role model will be more effective if the child see's them as: • someone with similar values • more powerful • warm and loving • liked and respected Early Years - Language used by EYW's will be imitated, the way they eat their lunch. Trained to use praise and reinforcement. Negatively punished if behaviour is poor. Day Care - Encourage personal hygiene, get praised for showering by them self this will be imitated. Intellectual stimulation and physiotherapy will be encouraged. Nursing homes - Encourage anti-social behaviour through SLT. May model angry behaviour.
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