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Sin and Forgiveness CRIME & Punishment

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Eduqas route B
Martina Moran
Flashcards by Martina Moran, updated more than 1 year ago
Martina Moran
Created by Martina Moran over 1 year ago
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What is meant by Crime? What is meant by sin? compare... Crime is an offense against the law of the land Sin is an offense against God Some things can be both sinful and criminal. Sometimes breaking the law of the land upholds the law of God - e.g. breaking apartheid rules
What is meant by absolute morality? Actions are always right or wrong. Nothing changes this. Catholic Church takes an absolute stance on abortion and Euthanasia (except for doctrine of double effect) Fundamental Christians such as Evangelicals take also take an absolute stance
What is meant by relative morality? The rightness or wrongness of an action is based on the circumstances. Liberal Christians such as Church of England protestants take a relative stance on issues such as Abortion and Euthanasia.
Describe humanist attitudes towards morality? There are no 'divine' laws to follow Humans can work out what is morally right by using their reason. Humans are the authority. All humans are different and all situations are different - therefore morality is relative. Should consider the greatest outcome for all humans
List the 5 main purposes of punishment 1. Retribution - (not compatible with Catholic teaching) 2. Deterrence - put people off 3. Protection - keep society safe 4. Reformation - to change the person for the better 5.Vindication - to uphold the law
Give the 2 teachings of Jesus from Matthew's Gospel about forgiveness. 1. You should 'forgive 77 times' meaning that you should forgive endlessly. 2. If you forgive God will forgive you. If you do not forgive God will not forgive you. This shows that we must have compassion towards those who offend us, as before God no-one is perfect.
Solve the tension between punishment and forgiveness. (In other words - counter argue that forgiveness means letting people off the hook) 1. Forgiveness does not mean that the person should not be punished. 2. purpose of punishment is reform to fail to punish would be wrong. It is essential that people face up to the consequences of their actions. 3. Otherwise, this would be a great injustice - both for the victim and the person who has committed a crime.
What is meant by the term 'Capital Punishment'? The death penalty. In the UK this has been abolished. There are still places in the world that use Capital Punishment including some states in America
Explain St Augustine's teaching regarding Capital Punishment 1. Augustine - early thinker and accepted that CP was part of the punishment system. 2. However, focused on the need to reform the criminal. 3. We should hate the sin not the sinner 4. We should aim to reform the person 5. We need to save their souls if we cannot save their life.
QUOTE AUGUSTINE to support 'Hate the sin love the sinner' 'We pity the person but hate the offense or transgression.'
QUOTE AUGUSTINE on the importance of reforming the person 'There is no space to reform character except in this life.'
What is the name of the document written by John Paul II that speaks out on both Capital Punishment and Euthanasia EVANGELIUM VITAE which means 'the Gospel of Life'
Explain Pope John Paul II's teaching on Capital Punishment in Evangelium Vitae 1.We should punish the offender 2We should take measures to protect society 3. We should help the offender reform 4.We should avoid the extreme of executing someone. 5. Only if there is no other choice should execution happen. BUT as a result of steady improvements in the organization of the penal system, such cases are very rare, if not practically non-existent.
DESCRIBE Catholic Church's changing attitude towards Capital Punishment. 1. Used to accept it as part of the penal system 2. Used it to punish 'heretics' 3. In more enlightened times, with greater understanding about reasons for crime has said it should be 'rare' if ever used (Pope John Paul II) 4. Pope Francis has spoken out against it ' All men and women of good will should work to abolish the death penalty.'
General arguments used in favour of the death penalty 1. Some people never repent 2. Some cannot be reformed 3. Society can rid itself of the most dangerous people. 4. The victim does not get a second chance at 'life' 5. Life sentences rarely mean 'life without parole' 6. Its an effective deterrent
RELIGIOUS ARGUMENTS IN FAVOUR used by some fundamental Christians Genesis 9:6 says ‘Whoever sheds human blood by humans shall their blood be shed’. This suggests if someone murders then we can end their life the Old Testament –‘An eye for an eye, a tooth for a tooth, a life for a life.’ Natural Law theory argue that the death penalty helps order society and so is a legitimate form of punishment. Even Pope John Paul II recognises it may be needed in rare cases as a last resort. If the Law of the land allows it, then it is acceptable. St Paul upheld Christians following the law as authority is given to governments by God.
GENERAL ARGUMENTS AGAINST THE DEATH PENALTY 1. Executioner becomes a murderer 2. Miscarriages of justice - innocent people may be executed. 3. It is not an effective deterrent (more violent crime in states that use it not less)
RELIGIOUS ARGUMENTS AGAINST THE DEATH PENALTY (used by Catholic Christians and Liberal Christians such as Church of England protestants) 1. Jesus changed the law 'eye for an eye' to 'love your enemies. 2. Heart of punishment is reform and this doesn't help reformation 3. 'Do not Kill' 4. Only God can judge - CP fails to compassionately understand why people end up so broken as to commit crime. 5. Disorders society as states with CP are more violent. 5. Rejects the sanctity of life and the idea that everyone is 'imago dei' even though we sin.
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