C4 - Chemical Patterns

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Cambridge IGCSE Chemistry Flashcards on C4 - Chemical Patterns, created by franimal on 11/11/2013.

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Question Answer
What is relative atom mass? The mass of an atom in comparison to hydrogen, the lightest.
Why is it called the periodic table? It has a repeated or periodic pattern.
What two features are there common to Group 1 elements? They're highly reactive metals.
In what four ways are the Group 1 metals unusual? They're so soft they can be cut with a knife, they tarnish incredibly quickly in air, they float on water because they're not dense at all and melt on very gentle heating.
What happens when the first three elements react with water? (3 stages/ideas) They fizz and sometimes skate around the surface of the water. The metal reacts with the water to form a hydroxide which dissolves into the water to make an alkaline solution. Hydrogen is also given off.
What happens when the first three elements react with chlorine? They all make clear, crystalline solids that dissolve in water - salts.
What three trends are there for the first Group 1 metals? Reactivity increases going down the group, whilst melting and boiling points decrease.
What are the Group 7 elements called and are they metals, non-metals or gases. The halogens are non-metals.
In what two distinct ways do the halogens always occur in nature? They so reactive they mostly occur as compounds with metals and they're diatomic - they occur in pairs.
Do the melting and boiling points of Group 7 elements increase or decrease going down the column? Increase
What are displacement reactions? Give an example of this with chlorine and sodium. A more reactive halogen will 'displace' one further down the column, which is less reactive. For example if chlorine was combined with sodium bromide, the end products would be bromine and sodium chloride.
What are flame colours? A colour produced when a chemical is held in a flame, often characteristic of a particular element or compound.
What is a line spectrum? A spectrum made up of a series of lines, individual to every element.
What is 'the use of instruments to use and analyse spectra' called? spectroscopy
Describe the structure and parts of an atom. The nucleus is made up of positively charged protons and charge-less neutrons, and there are clouds of negatively charged electrons occupying energy levels.
What is the 'proton number' and what does this also show? The proton number is the number of protons in the nucleus and in an uncharged atom, this also shows how many electrons there are.
What two words together mean 'the number and arrangement of electrons in an atom of an element'. electron arrangement
How does electron arrangement relate to the groups system? Electrons in the outer shells are the ones involved when elements react, and if the configurement of these electrons is the same, then the elements will often have similar properties.
What electron arrangement usually leads to non-metals and to metal elements? Metals usually have just one or two electrons in their outer shells whilst non metals usually have 3-8.
What is a salt? A compound of a metal and a non metal.
What is the word equation for producing common/table salt? sodium + chlorine = sodium chloride
If something is 'crystalline' what does this mean? It's molecules, atoms or ions are lined up in a regular pattern, as in crystals.
When two elements become a salt compound, what effect does this have on their melting and boiling temperatures and why? Dramatically increases because the overall molecules of the compound has more bonds to break, as it's bigger.
In what form does a salt conduct electricity and what happens to it? When a salt is molten, it conducts electricity. However passing an electric current through a salt makes it revert to it's original elements.
What is splitting compounds up using electricity called? electrolysis
What is an ion? An electrically charged atom or group of atoms.
How do atoms become ions? They gain or lose electrons to end with 8 electrons in their outer shell. However this causes the proton-electron balance to change.
Are metals/non-metals positive/negative? Metal ions - positively charged Non-metal ions - negatively charged
What two words together mean 'the different forms a chemical can take'? chemical species
What three species does chlorine have and what two species does sodium have? Chlorine: atom, molecule, ion. Sodium: atom, ion.
CFCs break up the ozone. Why does this happen? CFC's contain chlorine, which splits into Cl atoms in the full glare of the sun's UV radiation. When not paired up, Cl atoms are very reactive and destructive to the ozone.
What label is given to the Cl molecule and why? It's classed as toxic as it's reactive enough to do damage to human tissues.
What are the properties of chlorine dioxide? (4 points) Oxidising, corrosive, toxic and explosive as a liquid.
What effect does dissolving sodium chloride in pure water have on the pH? Nothing - the pH remains neutral as the water doesn't react with the ions.
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