Exam word bank

Flashcards by miriamadaeze, updated more than 1 year ago
Created by miriamadaeze over 7 years ago


These are the word banks for the exam. I left some other things in there that I think will be good to know for multiple choice. Enjoy

Resource summary

Question Answer
all species and their abiotic environment in an area Ecosystem
the position of an organism in the ecosystem according to how it obtains energy trophic level
Know the cycle of materials (from bottom up) Producers (plants)-> primary consumers (herbivores)-> secondary consumers (canivores) ->tertiary consumers (top canivores)
What is transfer efficiency? (Energy entering trophic level n / energy entering trophic level n-1) x 100
the amount of water pumped into the atmosphere by evaporation from the ground via transportation from vegetation- measure of solar radiation, temperature and rainfall Evapotranspiration
a linear sequence of species (or groups of species) in which each species feeds exclusively on the next tropic level down the chain? Food Chain (know the example)
complex trophic relationships among species in an ecosystem Food web
the pattern of movement of a chemical element through living organisms and the four components of the physical environment (land, air, freshwater, oceans) Biogeochemical cycle
Conversion of soluble nitrogenous compounds to atmospheric N2 Denitrification
the ecosystem response to the addition of artificial or natural substances, such as nitrates and phosphates, through fertilizers or sewage, to an aquatic system. Eutrophication
study sites with highest N deposition rates had lowest species richness, why? There was competition exclusion of slow growers that are adapted to natural nitrogen levels; competitive dominance wins (there may be other ways to phrase this, this was what was said in class)
The development of many different forms from an originally homogeneous group of organisms as they fill different ecological niches Adaptive radiation
when a later group has caused the extinction or reduction of an earlier group; the later group outcompeted the earlier group competitive displacement
instances in which two or more indistinguishable species don't interbreed cryptic species
reduction or prevention of gene flow between populations by genetically determined differences between them. Reproductive isolation
type of isolation where potential mates do not meet ecological isolation
gametes fail to produce viable zygotes Gametic incompatibility
hybrids have developmental problems hybrid inviability
a set of genetic traits which have high fitness when they occur together, but low fitness when not together coadapted gene complex
an adaptation to prevent the production of unfit hybrids, usually by strengthening of prezygotic barriers in sympatric populations Reinforcement
colonists carry only a small fraction of the total variation in the source causing a loss of alleles in the founding population Founder effect
How can reproductive isolation evolve without geographic isolation? Parapatric speciation can occur if effect of gene flow is weaker than strength of divergent selection in different areas.
union of unreduced gametes of the same species Autopolyploids
What are the barriers to gene flow? (This is the study on evolution of sympatric host races.) Host plant preference; assertive mating on host plant; differential phenology; hybrids have lower fitness because they're not specialized.
the ability of a single cell to divide and produce all of the differentiated cells in an organism Totipotency
process that produces adaptations resulting from differential reproductive success among organisms in the same population Natural Selection
Phenotypic variation during an individuals lifetime caused by environmental variation Phenotypic plasticity
individuals fitness + relative's fitness Inclusive fitness
relationship between the benefit and cost of a trait in a different environment Trade-off
All life functions cannot be simultaneously maximized, leading to tradeoffs principle of allocation
where a species lives and how it obtains resources fundamental niche
part of the fundamental niche that a species actually occupies caused by interactions with other species realized niche
benefits obtained from regulation of ecosystem processes Regulating
relatively long term response by an organism to environmental change acclimation
distribution of organisms in space at one moment in time Dispersion
The entire span of an organism from fertilization to death Life cycle
Age specific expectation of future reproduction Reproductive Value (Vx).
process when individuals share resources that are in short supply competition
when an animal eats another organism Predation
results in amino acid substitution on the polypeptide Nonsynonymous
when an individual has different copies of an allele heterozygous
The site on a chromosome occupied by a specific gene Locus
when heterozygotes show a phenotype intermediate between those of the two homozygotes incomplete dominance
a form of nonrandom mating in which individuals are more likely to mate with relatives than with nonrelatives inbreeding
set of species living in a particular place Community
random change in gene frequencies within populations caused by sampling error Genetic drift
the proportion of the population that are heterozygous heterozygosity
when fitness is higher for heterozygotes than homozygotes Heterosis (hybrid vigor)
movement of genotypes from one population to another Gene flow
the limit in the degree of overlap that will allow species to coexist Limiting similarity
when species differ more where they are together (sympatric) than where they are alone (allopatric) Character displacement
when two or more species affect one another's evolution coevolution
species that are brightly colored to advertise that they are harmful Aposematic
temporal change in community composition succession
Origination rates are higher for specialized taxa because new species can avoid competing with other species by specializing on unique resources; Extinction rates of specialist taxa are higher because they are more sensitive to environmental variation Ecological specialization
specific parts of a pathogen protein that the host's immune system recognizes and remembers Antigenic sites
warming of earth caused by higher concentrations of gases that absorb heat Greenhouse effect
Increased growth rate, levels off at high concentrations of oxygen, may not occur when nutrients are in short supply and short term enhancement decreases in the long run Fertilization effect
The ongoing decrease in the pH of the Earth's ocean caused by uptake of anthropogenic CO2 from the atmosphere Ocean acidification
services necessary for the production of all other ecosystem services Supporting
Products obtained from ecosystems Provisioning
Nonmaterial benefits obtained from ecosystems Cultural
Use of natural enemies to control pests Biological control
Interactions among individuals in which all benefit Cooperation
Specifically binds to a foreign substance in the blood or other tissue fluids and initiate its removal from the body antibody
an environment defined by its climatic and geographic attributes and characterized by ecologically similar organisms, particularly dominant plants Biome
preserves average characteristic of population by favoring average individuals Stabilizing selection
a sequence of three nucleotides that together form a unit of genetic code in a DNA or RNA molecule Codon
Genotype and environment interact to determine the phenotype of an organism Genotype-environment interaction
form nodules and are able to convert atmospheric N2 into ammonia Rhizobia
enhances nutrient and water uptake Mycorrhizae
The area an animal normally lives Home range
An exclusive area used and defended by an individual Territory
r-K selection theory K-selected species: equilibrium species. r-selected species: non-equilibrium species, opportunistic species
when an animal eats either other animals or plants Omnivory
Intimate association between species Symbiosis (living together)
Flagellated protozoans with chloroplasts that live in the gastrodermis of corals Zooxanthellae
Early species modify the environment in a way that allows later species to colonize Facilitation
Evolutionary history of relationships among organisms or their genes Phylogeny
The ability of a pathogen to cause disease and death Virulence
The separation or division of a group of organisms by a geographic barrier such as a mountain resulting in differentiation of the original group into new species Vicariance
Ability to withstand the effects of a pathogen Resistance
New populations are different from old population and the change is so much greater than microevolution within a population Genetic revolution (not in book, he said it in class. verify)
reduction of gene flow and allowance for adaptation Self-fertilization
mixing of different species to produce hybrids hybridization
The killing and eating of potential competitors; combination of competition and predation Intraguild predation
Conversion of ammonia into nitrite by Nitrosomonas bacteria. Nitrite is then converted to nitrate by Nitrobacter. Nitrification (2 step process)
when one organism lives inside the other and the two typically behaving as a single organism. endosymbiosis
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