Key Definitions for organic chemistry

katburr23
Flashcards by , created about 5 years ago

Key definitions for 'an introduction to organic chemistry'

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katburr23
Created by katburr23 about 5 years ago
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Question Answer
General Formula Simplest algebraic formula of a member of a homologous series (ie) CnH2n+2 for Alkanes (non-cyclic)
Empirical Formula Simplest whole number ratio of atoms present in a compound.
Molecular Formula Actual whole number ratio of atoms present in a compound.
Structural Formula The minimal detail that shows the arrangement of atoms in a molecule (ie) CH3CH2CH2CH3 for butane
Displayed Formula A formula that shows the relative positioning of ALL atoms and bonds within a structure
Skeletal Formula A simplified organic formula, shown by removing hydrogen atoms from carbon chains, leaving just a carbon skeleton and associated functional groups.
Hydrocarbon A compound that contains only Carbon and Hydrogen atoms
Functional Group Group of atoms in a molecule responsible for the characteristic reactions of a compound
Homologous Series A series of compounds having the same functional group & general formula but with each successive member differing by CH2
Structural Isomer Molecules with the same molecular formula but with different structural formula
Stereoisomer Compounds with the same structural formula but with a different arrangement of atoms in space.
E/Z isomer An example of stereoisomerism, in terms of restricted rotation about a C=C and the requirement for two different groups to be attached to each carbon atom of the C=C bond
Cis / trans isomer A special case of E/Z isomerism in which two of the substituent groups are the same
Bond Fission The breaking of a covalent
Homolytic fission The breaking of a covalent bond, with one of the shared pair of electrons going to each atom, forming two radicals.
Heterolytic Fission The breaking of a covalent bond with both of the shared pair of electrons going to one of the atoms forming ions
Electrophile An electron pair acceptor
Nucleophile An electron pair doner