Key terms for Russian Revolution

Flashcards by eleanor.faye99, updated more than 1 year ago
Created by eleanor.faye99 over 5 years ago


Collection of key terms to memorise for the Russian revolution topic.

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Marxism Idea of the Marxist cycle. Invented by Karl Marx in which the concept of class struggle plays a central role in understanding society's allegedly inevitable development from bourgeois oppression under capitalism to a socialist and ultimately classless society.
Marxist-Leninism Lenin's adaption of Marxism - skip capitalist stage and go to socialism.
Peasant Agricultural workers.
Intelligentsia Intellectuals e.g doctors, lawyers, teachers
Duma Russian parliament set up by the Tsar.
Nobility Upper class.
Bourgeoisie Marxist term for the middle class - they own the means of production and exploit the working class.
Clergy Religious figures
Soviet A Workers' Council. The largest was Petrograd. Evolved into a system of Government - shared power with the Provisional Government. Workers and soldiers supported it and Socialist Politicians joined it.
Conscription Forcing people to join military forces
Liberalism Who?: Made up of the middle class and nobility. Supporters: middle class and nobility. Power base: Work in the Provisional Government. Beliefs: Want equality and social democracy. Members of the Duma at first.
Capitalism Property is owned by INDIVIDUALS. Means of production owned by BUSINESSMEN. Idea of 'free market' - sell something for a price you believe people will pay.
Socialism Property is owned by the STATE. WORKERS own the means of production. Goods and services produced for the needs of the people, not profit.
Communism Property is owned by EVERYONE. Means of production are COMMONLY OWNED. No state government. No national borders. (Advanced form of socialism)
Marxist cycle 1. Feudalism - absolute monarchy 2. Middle class (bourgeoisie) revolution 3. Capitalist period (leads to inequality for workers) -- Socialist revolution -- 4. Socialism 5. Communism
Bolsheviks What?: small party Who?: professional revolutionaries, middle class Supporters?: the working class Beliefs: Marxism Aims: wanted revolution immediately in Power base: Petrograd Soviet
Mensheviks What?: Large party with anyone/everyone Who?: middle class, workers and social minorities Supporters: workers Beliefs: Marxism Aim: wanted to follow the Marxist cycle and wait for revolution Power base: founded the Soviets and joined Provisional Government in 1917
Socialist Revolutionaries Who?: Party of middle class Supporters?: peasants What?: gave land to peasants Beliefs: socialism Power base: Soviet at first but Kerensky was SR so became part of Provisional Government
Petrograd Soviet Represented the WORKING CLASS. Who?: made up of workers, Mensheviks and Socialist Revolutionaries What?: partake in strike action, democratic organisation Had POWER.
Petrograd Soviet (aims) - Order 1 FORBID members from obeying orders from the Prov. Govt. unless agreed by the Soviet. - The executive committee was made up of members of all main socialist parties. - Shot down most things the Provisional Government attempted to do.
Provisional Government Represents middle and upper class. Who?: Made up of Intelligentsia, liberals and socialists What?: made the laws Ideas: CONSTITUENT ASSEMBLY - how Russia would be governed by election Had AUTHORITY.
Provisional Government (continued) - created by the Duma in place of the Tsar (not elected) - contained mainly liberals (Kadets) - liberals replaced by socialists - led by Alexander Kerensky - goal was to keep country running while there was a constituent assembly.
Constituent Assembly National election which decides how the country is to be run by an election.
Aims of Provisional Government 1. Forgive everyone for all crimes committed. 2. Freedom of speech, press, and able to form unions and strike. Political freedom for armed forces. 3. Equality - class, religion, nationality. 4. Constituent assembly - direct suffrage to determine form of Government.
Aims of Provisional Government (continued) 5. People's militia for the police - elected officers responsible for local governments/ areas. 6. Elections for local governments. 7. Military troops involved in revolution are forgiven. 8. Soldiers freed from all restrictions in regards to civil rights.
Imperialism (Highest state of Capitalism.) - claimed capitalism was a bankrupt system bound to collapse in series of wars between capitalist countries over resources/territory - civil war and class conflict would cause socialist revolution - start in relatively undeveloped country and spread to industrialised countries
Russiffication This meant that non-Russians of the Russian empire had to adopt Russian customs and language at the time (dress, act, speak and look like Russians)
April Theses Summary 1. Pull out of the war 2. Soviets to take power 3. No cooperation with Prov Govt. 4. Giving land to the peasants. 5. Worldwide revolution of the Proleteriat. "PEACE BREAD LAND" "ALL POWER TO THE SOVIETS"
Autocracy A system of government where power rests with one supreme leader. i.e the Tsar
1905 Revolution A popular revolution in Russia - caused by various factors including lack of freedoms, starvation and poor working conditions.
Alexander Kerensky Socialist Revolutionary. Leader of the Provisional Government. Made several mistakes leading up to the Bolshevik take over.
Lenin Leader of the Bolshevik party. Believed in Marxism but wanted to force the revolution and lead the country.
Proleteriat Marxist term for the industrial working class. They sell their labour to the Bourgeoisie and exploit them for profit.
Means of production Factories, mills, shops - anything which produces a product, whether that product is physical or mental (ideas)
Petrograd Capital of Russia in 1914 - also known as St Petersburg and later Leningrad.
Order Number 1 Order passed by the Petrograd Soviet. It stated that the Soviet would allow its members to follow orders from the Provisional Government UNLESS the Soviet disagreed with that order. Gave real power to the Soviets.
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