Midterm: Qing Dynasty/Tokugawa Shogunate to Tongzhi/Meiji Restoration


Flashcards on Midterm: Qing Dynasty/Tokugawa Shogunate to Tongzhi/Meiji Restoration, created by Cassandra Guerrero on 10/07/2015.
Cassandra Guerrero
Flashcards by Cassandra Guerrero, updated more than 1 year ago
Cassandra Guerrero
Created by Cassandra Guerrero over 8 years ago

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Daimyo Japanese lords who controlled domains with over 10,000 koku of rice, made up of stretches of land containing several villages. Fudai were advisers to the Shogun, Tozama were “outside lords”, and Shinpan were relatives of Tokugawa. Held retainers of Samurai and were controlled by the Shogunate with a series of regulations on how they traveled, spent their money, and who they married. Also required to maintain residences in both their domain and in Edo. This class system was dissolved with the consolidation of classes and development of prefectures during the beginning of the Meiji Restoration in 1868.
Hong Xiuquan (1814 - 1864) Hakka man from Canton who failed to pass the examinations to become an official. After reading material from a Christian missionary, interpreted his “visions” to mean that he was the brother of Jesus. Created God Worshipping Society and traveled through northern and western China, gaining followers in the lower classes. In 1851, declared himself King to the Heavenly Kingdom of Great Peace (Taiping) and associated Qings with demons. Defeated Qing troops and took over Nanjing as capital. Fended off twice in Shanghai, where Westerners joined in the defense of the city. Eventually defeated by Zeng Guofan, leader of the Qing forces.
Zeng Guofan (1811 - 1872) Led Qing forces against Taipings after government’s initial failures to quell rebellion. Worked to defeat Taipings by recruiting officers who recruited their own soldiers and paying soldiers well to promote loyalty, as well as using modern Western weapons. After defeating Taipings, assigned to Nian rebellion. Sided with the Reformers in Self-Strengthening Movement to incorporate Western ideas and learning. Succeeded in 1872 by Li Hongzhang.
Li Hongzhang Served under Zeng Guofan. Governor-general of Zhili (1872 - 1901) and head of new army. Supported development of industry, railroads, coal mines, steam nav, telegraph lines, and cotton weaving.
Ito Hirobumi Studied Western constitutional theory in Berlin. Drafted constitution containing Western ideas of rights and duties for monarchy in Japan. Presented in 1889 as gift from Emperor to people, defining Emperor's position as a descendant of the sun god.
Lord William Napier Superintendent of trade to Britain in 1834. His goals toward China were the same as Macartney and the other men’s before him.
Matteo Ricci Jesuit missionary in China from 1582 - 1610. In 1583 allowed to move inland. Moved from Nanjing to Beijing in 1601. Taught Western geography, astronomy, and Euclidean math. Fit Christianity to Chinese worldview.
Emperor Kangxi (1661 - 1772) Expanded China’s borders by annexing Taiwan, Mongolia, and Tibet. Signed Treaty of Nerchinsk in 1689, which established China’s northern borders with Russia, national citizenship, and rules of movement and trade between the two countries.
Lord George Macartney Sent to China to represent British Crown and establish formal relations with the Chinese in 1793. Entered in the trade city of Guangzhou and permitted to see emperor and present a letter from King George III. Goals to negotiate new terms for trade, open up more ports, arrange diplomatic ambassador, and create demand for British goods. Rejected by the Qianlong Emperor, who saw no need to change present system and relations.
Francis Xavier Jesuit missionary, originally arrived in China in 1549, after India and Indies, but moved on to Japan after being denied entry. Found success by assimilating to the locals. Traveled throughout Japan until 1552, when he died trying to once again reach China.
Saigo Takamori Adviser to Satsuma daimyo in 1854 after samurai unrest. Proposed invasion of Korea in 1873 due of insult to Emperor. Left government after being outvoted on composing army of military-bred men. Led largest and final rebellion in Satsuma for samurai privilege. Committed suicide after defeat in 1873.
Matthew Perry American Commodore sailed to Edo in 1853. Intimidated shogunate to accept letter of friendship. Kanagawa Treaty, 1854 opened two ports to American ships for obtaining coal and supplies, American consul in Japan, fair treatment of shipwrecked sailors, and most favored nation treatment. Brought Morse Code telegraph, steam locomotive with carriages and track, and put on minstrel show. Much art produced demonizing Perry and his black steam ships.
Yoshida Shoin Studied military science in Choushuu. 1854 opened school teaching sonnou jooi, or "expelling the barbarian" shogun to restore power to the Emperor. Helped to start reformation movement and Meiji Restoration.
Itagaki Taisuke Leader of Freedom and People's Rights Movement in Japan.
Empress Cixi Ruled after death of Xianfeng Emperor and in place of son Tongzhi Emperor. Conservative on reforms, spent reform money self, corruption. After son's death, installed nephew, Guangxu Emperor. Worked with Prince Gong to take throne from Guangxu and stop 100 Days of Reform. Sided with Boxers in rebellion and declared war on European powers. Forced to agree to Boxer Protocol. Implemented new policies only after humiliating defeat.
Kang Youwei Promoted constitutional monarchy for China. Supported by Guangxu Emperor and leader in 100 Days of Reform.
Fukuzawa Yukichi Author, "expert on all things Western." Studied Dutch and English. Founded newspaper and Keio Univeristy (1858) for Western Studies.
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