Biology 2 Flash Cards

Flashcards by ewatson1, updated more than 1 year ago
Created by ewatson1 over 5 years ago


Covers all topics, in no particular order

Resource summary

Question Answer
Aerobic Respiration The release of energy from food molecules that act as fuel for the cell.
Word equation for Aerobic Respiration C6H12O6 + 6O2 = 6CO2 + 6H2O
Diffusion The net movement of molecules from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration.
Oxygen in the blood Oxygen enters the blood from the alveoli by diffusion, it goes down its concentration gradient from a high concentation in the alveoli to a low concentration in the blood.
Carbon dioxide in the blood Carbon dioxide leaves the blood and enters the alveoli.
What is the function of the chloroplasts? They're where photosynthesis takes place to store energy from sunlight.
What is the function of the cytoplasm? It's where reactions take place in the cell.
What is the function of the cell membrane? It lets substances in and out of the cell.
What feature is different to animal cells in yeast cells? They have a cell wall.
What is in an animal cell? Cell Membrane Nucleus Cytoplasm Ribosomes Mitochondria
What's in plant cell? Nucleus Cell Wall Cell membrane Vacuole Chloroplast Mitochondria Ribosomes
What is the function of the ribosomes? To produce protein
What is the function of the mitochondria? To produce the energy currency of the cell, through respiration, and to regulate cellular metabolism.
What does a bacteria cell contain? Cell wall Cytoplasm Plasmid DNA - for extra information Chromosomal DNA - contains genetic material Flagellum
What are the four bases and what do they do? The four bases are: Thymine Cytosine Adenine Guanine They form a complete nucleotide.
What is the genetic information in an organism called? Its genome.
What are GMO's? Genetically Modified Organisms.
Modern uses of GMO's Manufacturing insulin. Crops which produce a greater yield. 2 extra genes added to produce beta-carotene. Crops resistant to disease (can lead to a lack of biodiversity).
What is diploid? Have 2 copies of each chromosome (don't double dip).
What is haploid? Have 1 copy of each chromosome (happy - a single emotion).
What is a gamete? A sex cell.
What is fertilisation? When 2 gametes fuse
What is sexual reproduction? When the gametes are needed for reproduction.
What is asexual reproduction? When something splits in half to reproduce.
What is a zygote? The name of a cell that has a full set of chromosomes (half from mum and half from dad) and develops into an embryo.
Mitosis is used for? Growth. Replacement of damaged cells. To repair worn tissue.
How many new cells does Mitosis create? 2 new cells.
Difference between Meiosis and Mitosis Mitosis is copying division. Meiosis is reduction division and each new cell has half the number of chromosomes of the original cell.
How do we clone animals? Embryonic transplanting.
What are stem cells? Unspecialised cells that can develop into almost any type of cell.
What is a good source of stem cells? Early embryos.
What does insulin do? Helps take in glucose.
Where is keratin found? Found in human hair/nails and stags antlers.
What does RBC stand for? Red Blood Cells.
What is protein made up of? Protein is made up of amino acids.
What does anarobic respiration produce? Lactic acid.
What does an enzyme in the liver break down? Hydrogen peroxide.
What does every enzyme have? An active site - the part where it joins onto its substrate to catalyze the reaction.
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