Coasts - General

BGL
Flashcards by BGL, updated more than 1 year ago
BGL
Created by BGL over 7 years ago
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GCSE Thomas Keble (Geography) Flashcards on Coasts - General, created by BGL on 11/21/2013.

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Question Answer
What is Longshore Drift a type of? Transportation
How does Longshore Drift work? Material is blown at an angle to the beach via the prevailing wind. Gravity then pulls the material at 90 degrees in the backwash. This repeats along the coast.
What may form behind spits? Salt marshes may form in the sheltered area as the water is slow moving here, and there is more deposition of material.
What is Transportation? The movement of beach material along a coastline
Give 3 features of a CONSTRUCTIVE wave LOW energy wave, with a STRONG swash, but a WEAK backwash
What are the typical features of HARD Engineering? Expensive, Unsustainable (short-term), Unattractive
What does the erosion CORROSION do? Salts and acids in the water dissolve the rock gradually.
Give 3 features of a DESTRUCTIVE wave HIGH energy wave, with a WEAK swash and STRONG backwash.
What are spits? Extended beach material from the end of a beach, formed by L.S.D. out into the sea. The change in direction is from the changing wind direction.
What type of engineering is Rock Armour and what does it do? Hard Engineering. Absorbs the energy of the waves, reducing their coastal impact.
Name the two main categories of wave and what they do Constructive (build up beaches) and Destructive (take away beach material).
What type of engineering is Beach Nourishment, and what does it do? Soft Engineering. Adding more sand to an existing beach to make it bigger and slow waves down.
What are the main two types of Coastal Management? Hard and Soft Engineering
Name four types of erosion Abrasion, Hydraulic Action, Attrition, Corrosion
What are the typical features of SOFT Engineering? Cheaper, Sustainable (Long-Term), Subtle
What does the erosion ABRASION do? Transports material that is thrown at the cliff and wears it away (like sandpaper)
What type of engineering are Groynes, and what do they do? Hard Engineering. They 'catch' beach material from L.S.D
What does a beach made from DESTRUCTIVE waves look like? Steep and Narrow
What does the erosion HYDRAULIC ACTION do? Waves compress air into cracks in the cliff. This makes the cracks bigger and weakens the rock.
What does the erosion ATTRITION do? Waves carry rocks that crash into each other, slowly making them smaller and smoother.
What type of engineering is Managed Retreat, and what does it do? Soft Engineering. Allows the sea to flood the land, turning it into a salt marsh. This slows down the waves against the land and creates a nature reserve.
What does a beach made from CONSTRUCTIVE waves look like? Wide and flat
What is Integrated Coastal Zone Management? Management of areas inland from the coast and out into sea. It is NOT management of just the coast.
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